♣ Funds management

"♣": Estrategias específicas empleadas por los estudios de caso para incrementar su nivel de auto-sustentabilidad.Pueden estar en inglés o español. Por favor usa el traductor del menú lateral 

"♣": Specific strategies used by the case studies to increase their degree of self-sustainability.They might be in English or in Spanish. Please use the side menu translator
  • The direction of the administration is sharedamong the government of Defeng city, and the authorities of the forest park, the scenic area and the geopark. The government agency Hong Kong-China Songshan Travel Company is responsible for investmentsrelated to tourism attention, such as cable cars, tickets, toilets, shops, etc. Part of its profits are kept by the company and part are delivered to the government. It then redistributes the share of profits between the Shaolin Temple, the Bureau of Culture, and the Office of Land and Resources, to which the Museum of Geology belongs.
  • UNESCO’s criteria:
  1. management body that:
    • operates the area effectively
    • is recognized by local legislation
    • includes scientific experts
    • includes local and national authorities and actors relevant to tourism, environmental, cultural and administrative issues (owners, community groups, tourism agencies, ethnic groups, local organizations, etc.).
  • To ensure accountability and transparency in the management of its resources, [This/the initiative] has planned that its board of directors is monitored by a board of supervisors equivalent in rank and, in addition, that its activities and decisions be published on its website and social networks — which also serves to receive feedback on the initiative.
    • To ensure counterweights in case of controversy, the leaders of the communities are 3 and are chosen with the agreement both of the [This/the initiative] team and the communities. They adopt the responsibility of consulting with the farmers what products they want to sell, of announcing them to the consumers, of finalizing the orders, of supervising the selection and packaging of the products, and of sending them to the city. Likewise, they are responsible for managing the resources obtained to solve logistical issues (such as renting a car to transport the goods), to pay the farmers for their products (approximately 80%), and to collect their respective commissions (approximately 3%). They also commit to maintaining frequent contact with the team of researchers.

    • The administration of the project through the mentioned web platforms not only favours an efficient and transparent management (each step of the process is published online and therefore is subject to scrutiny) but also the open feedback of the users. This, in turn, allows maintaining the quality of the market and its products, because, for example, each farmer has a profile that can be evaluated by consumers.

    • Decentralizing the management of the funds
      • Establishing banking trust funds mechanisms where all actors are represented and their rights and responsibilities clearly distributed (the trustee/bank, the donors/funders, and the beneficiaries/initiative/local people), that contribute to the effective management of the funds, and that guarantee its credibility and transparency
    • Removing corrosive disadvantages for the effective and thus sustainable implementation of a development initiative might imply special financial and institutional arrangements and the design of new strategies related to the management, the means of acquisition, the purpose and the diversity of the funding.
    • Another strategy commonly used to this end is the establishment of schemes, such as the banking trust funds mentioned before, that assure that all stakeholders’ interests and responsibilities are negotiated, defined by contract, and supervised by an external actor — dealing concurrently with potential treats to self-sustainability that could emerge during the implementation process and keeping the communities stewardship of the programs by delimiting their rights and responsibilities.
    • Integrating the schools within a network of development programs
    • Besides receiving education, the program’s students benefit from health services, communication resources, toys, and learning materials provided by other development programs operated by the organization. This includes solar-powered lamps that allow the operation of the schools at night in areas in which there is frequently no electricity grid. Another aspect of the integrated development program sees to the building of rainwater harvesting tanks adjacent to each Night School, which helps to ensure that families in semi-desert areas will still be provided with water by their children, even if they attend school during the hours they would otherwise spend collecting it from wells. The fact that the Night Schools are embedded in a mutually supportive network of initiatives grounded in the[This/the initiative] facilitates attention to the children’s and their families’ diverse and specific needs.

    This comprehensive model also allows for the sharing of funds among different projects to support one another, and for the shared provision of materials, personnel, training, and infrastructure across the different projects. Some examples of the benefits of this integration are the Field Research Centres’ and Associate Partner Organizations’ roles as meeting points for a Children’s Parliament (a key project in this comprehensive model, which will be shortly introduced), and the fact that many Night Schools’ alumni are incorporated into the[This/the initiative]’s development projects. Alumni work as, for example, solar engineers, coordinators of craft workshops or of the local early childhood education centres, cooks for the[This/the initiative] community, or as cultural workers in the community. Others extend the benefits of the program into the mainstream education system at the Siksha Karmi and Siksha Niketa schools. Further examples of this integration among projects lie in the training offered to teachers by the[This/the initiative]’s Health Centre to identify common health issues in their students, and in the vocational training that the children receive.

    The degree of ownership felt by the communities of these projects enhances their trust of the[This/the initiative] and their confidence to send their children to the Night Schools. The opportunity costs of school attendance and community involvement in the projects are compensated by this sense of ownership, which is also a result of a widely decentralized budgeting process. The communities are deeply involved with the program: they manage it, they contribute to it, and they benefit from it.

    • Through the new scheme, the organization collected enough donations to start what is known as a Capital Fund, which sum is enough to secure that the interests it yields are given to the farmers in replacement of the fees they were receiving from logging companies in exchange of their protection of the forest, securing, at the same time, that the fund itself is not touched, reducing the need to search for additional funds annually. This capital fund is subject to control by a banking trust fund mechanism composed of 3 parts: the trustee (the bank), the donors/foundations, and the beneficiaries (the organization/the local people), which contributes to the effective management of the funds and guarantees its credibility and transparency.

    The Capital Fund Scheme:

    [This/the initiative] uses a comprehensive scheme that includes several funding mechanisms that allow the organization to create a capital fund that yields interests to be used to finance the project.

    The establishment of a capital fund is an option that intends to avoid searching for annual funds but, instead, creates an investment fund that yields interests to be used to finance the project without touching the fund itself. If the fund is enough, there is no need to get more money. If not, or if the interests decrease, it will be necessary to keep up the search for donations. It can represent the whole or only a part of the budget needed for the project, but having a part makes it easy to get the rest because it gives certainty to the donors. This scheme can be discussed with the donors in the teaming contract.

    • The Participation in the Carbon Bond Market Scheme:

    Donations are possible to a large extent as a result of the project’s intention to participate in the carbon bond market through an intermediary. The carbon bond market is an international instrument to account the emission of greenhouse gasses which are not produced or are reduced as a result of compensatory measures such as the generation of renewable energy, improvement of energy efficiency process, afforestation, avoided deforestation, lakes and rivers cleaning, etc., to voluntarily mitigate the environmental damage caused. These bonds are translated into carbon emission certificates (CERs), each one equivalent to one tonne of carbon dioxide (CO2) reduced or avoided, which can be redeemed for a price set by the international market rules. The carbon bond market is one of the internationally recognized mechanisms that allow particulars and public and private organizations become conscious of their responsibility towards climate change, and participate actively by selling or buying CERs to comply with the objectives of mitigating the environmental damage caused.

    To participate in this market,[This/the initiative] hired an intermediary entity – Terra Global Capital (from San Francisco) – for the design and promotion of the project within the international carbon bond market and the payment for the services to the beneficiaries. Therefore, all red tape procedures for this scheme are done by intermediary companies like this one that budget their payment themselves.

    • The Banking Trust Fund Scheme:
    • All financial resources obtained are deposited in the capital fund, the use of which is subject to control by a banking trust fund mechanism, which provides the project with credibility to encourage donations to contribute with those resources.Donors, foundations, governments, and international NGOs trying to support the so-called “developing countries” frequently face the same problem: corruption. Money frequently doesn’t arrive at its destination and stays in intermediary hands. It also happens that the money is distributed but the recipient organizations don’t have projects to offer, even if the money is there. With a Trust Fund, the money doesn’t have to go through the organization’s hands but rather goes through the Trust Fund’s hands which gives transparency to the money’s management, and certainty to both the organization and the donors.A Trust Fund is composed of 3 parts:
      1. The Trustee (the Bank) that is the one that generates the confidence (the trust), as it is the one that monitors how the money is being spent and ensures that it is used in the way and with the purpose agreed, by contract, between the beneficiaries and the donors.
      2. The Donors/Foundations that put money in the trust for a specific purpose.
      3. The Beneficiaries (the organization and/or local people).

      1, 2, and 3 elect an Executive Board (also called Technical Committee) that supervises/manages the Trust Fund on a daily basis and under the general supervision of the Trustee. It is formed by representatives from donors and beneficiaries.

      All rules applicable to the operation of the Trust are convened through a contract among 1, 2, and 3.

      All decisions (the designation of the Executing Board, the use of the money donated, etc.) are settled in that contract. All parts would like to advocate for their own interests but the ideal is to find a balance between them – respecting the beneficiary’s project objectives and the donor’s aims. The donors participate in the model because they accept it, which means that once they sign the contract they cannot make changes to it. That has to be clear in the original contract.

      The content of the contract is to establish that what is being settled is a Trust Fund, that is, a contract based on trust because there is someone (the bank) that looks after the contract’s compliance (e.g. “We agree to ensure that the obtained money will be dedicated to x and the bank will supervise that it is done that x way” ). When, during the implementation process, money has to be spent, the Executive Board decides how to use the money and the bank watches that the conditions are in line with what was agreed both on the contract and in the conditions to which the granting of the funds were subjected, that is, the original objective and destination of the funds.

    • There are numerous ways in which the[This/the initiative]’s local community is already contributing in non-monetary ways to the sustainability of the Night Schools. The degree to which the local community has appropriated the program (as evidenced in their participation in providing management, supervision, infrastructure, funding for activities and materials, etc.) is a crucial point to note, for at least two reasons:

    -It means that almost the only expenses that are not being covered by the community are the teachers’ salaries and some costs for activities that they cannot bear.

    -It means that this initiative already bears the hallmarks of sustainability, given that it is well-known that development interventions are generally successful to the extent that they are appropriated by and integrated into the communities where they are targeted (development interventions are generally seen to fail when project funding ceases or when external project advisers are withdrawn, probably because community ‘take-up’ or ‘buy-in’ has been limited, making the project unsustainable without such community investment and ownership).

    Recommendations made in the[This/the initiative] Study:

    R1: Make a Community Contributions Inventory enumerating and detailing all contributions provided by families, communities, children, mentioning their monetary value in US dollars (e.g. If the place offered by the community for the school were to be rented instead of simply facilitated, how much should they be receiving for that rent; if the children were charging for their supervisory role how much would they be receiving). Additionally, based on that Inventory, find out the percentages of those contributions to be able to show the donors what percentage of each kind of participation is done by whom.

    R2: Find a Donor that works with the Matching Funds Scheme, or establish it with one of the current donors using the Community Contributions Inventory (referred in R1) to promote an understanding in which for every X amount of dollars that the[This/the initiative] contributes, the Foundation commits to contribute, in return, with 2x or 3x (depending on the established parity). This scheme will give the Foundation the security that if[This/the initiative] stops contributing with x, the Foundation will stop as well. If the[This/the initiative] manages to get a matching fund with a 1 for 1 parity it would be already doubling its budget.

    • Sustaining the Solar Night Schools Program with, exclusively, the interests generated by a Capital Fund could be an alternative for its financial self-sustainability. That would mean two things:

    1. That the funding’s strategy objective changes from searching for yearly funds to finding donations for an investment fund (the capital fund) selected with two criteria:

         a. that maximizes the interests; and

         b. that minimizes the financial risks.

    2. That money gathered from all sources to the program (including the suggested matching funds of R2) is used to pay the Night Schools’ expenses, and what is left invested in the capital fund (FDR) whose objective is to grow as much as possible so its interests can soon become another matching fund: the matching fund of the capital fund, thus attaining true financial sustainability.

    • the[This/the initiative]’s current budgeting process is already highly decentralized, which means that there are many actors supervising it at the same time. After receiving a donation or grant, the[This/the initiative]’s main office, known as the Tilonia office, sends the money directly (that is, bank to bank) to its branch offices – the Field Research Centres (FRC) and the Associated Partner Organizations – who, in turn, transfer it to the Village Education Committees (VEC)’s accounts. The latter are managed together by a member of the FRC and those of the VEC, which are closer to the communities. A mechanism to ensure certainty on how the money is spent would strengthen the model.

    The establishment of a Trust Fund will strengthen the effort of giving certainty to both, the organization and the donors, by increasing the transparency in the money’s management. It will not affect the autonomy of the Village Education Committees because, as members of the Trust Fund, they will be able to ensure their requirements in the agreement between all members of the Trust Fund.

    • Because of the[This/the initiative]’s high level of contribution to its own project, it could suggest to be Beneficiary and Donor at the same time, offering its Community Contributions Inventory (referred before in R1) as a contribution.
    • Regarding the Participation in the Carbon Bond Market Scheme:

    One of[This/the initiative]’s main strengths and most well-known contributions in the development field is the Solar Energy Program, which is already greatly intertwined with its other initiatives – including the Night Schools – that are largely possible due the provision of the solar lanterns that allow them to run at night. Moreover, many Night School alumni participate in the Solar Energy Program once they have graduated.

    This means that, so far, the Night Schools are already part of the Solar Energy Program, which generates renewable energy and therefore is eligible to participate in schemes such as the carbon bond market.

    Recommendation made in the[This/the initiative]Study:

    R5: To design a strategy to integrate more solidly and consciously the Solar Night Schools Program to the[This/the initiative]’s UNESCO Learning Centres for Sustainable Community Development (Mason & Maclean, 2011), and find an intermediary (such as Terra Global Capital) that introduces it to the international carbon bond market and deals with all the procedures involved in this funding source.

    Money collected by this means can also be included into the Capital Fund (see R3) and ensured through a Trust Fund (see R4) as[This/the initiative] does to strengthen the financial sustainability of its project.

    • Lack of support, which causes the project to be designed, in the words of X, “as it can” be done (i.e. simple to use/understand), and not “how it should” be done. That is, it develops as the budget allows it without any risk, so that people have certainty.
    • With a well-planned strategy, the introduction of a barter/exchange system with a tool similar to that used in the[This/the initiative] Project could encourage the circulation and benefits obtained from the products currently manufactured by the[This/the initiative] (in general: solar lanterns, sanitary napkins, etc., or by the schools program in particular: the wooden toys produced by the program’s children, etc.).
    • The Sustainable Entrepreneurship Program, for example, implements demonstrative initiatives for resources’ management and the acquisition of legal certifications to increase family income generation, increase food security, and reduce the impact on the environment, as socioeconomic strategic components to improve the quality of life, environmental conservation, and regional development (e.g. the communitarian ecotourism or the crafts production with local forest’s resources).
    • [This/the initiative] uses a few interesting strategies to ensure its financial sustainability, which are in charge of its Area of Institutional Integration. This area is responsible for integrating the organization’s diverse programs, determining institutional articulations and policies, planning the dissemination, expansion, and replication of the model, and ensuring their sustainability.
    • [This/the initiative]’s development model is integrated because of the interconnections that exist amongst its various interventions, which are emphasized in the understanding that attending the communities’ needs in an integral way implies recognizing that community life is integral itself; that all age sectors have to be attended; and, that one area can support another because it is frequently the same people that are involved.[This/the initiative]’s institutional integration process consists of consolidating each area’s relevant institutions and trying to establish a transversal project.
    • However, to achieve this level of integration is very difficult, as many factors work against it: The responsibilities of[This/the initiative]’s staff are distributed by areas and each area’s responsible has to be accountable for the programs at his/her charge, to ensure maintaining donors support. While all personnel are encouraged to be involved in all areas of work, they can only do it superficially because they have to concentrate on their own projects. Most importantly, the donors support very concrete/thematic agendas. Their funding criteria are not integral and they expect concrete results in concrete areas. So each area coordinator is generally responsible for the results of its domain and not the other.
    • Distributes the funding collected across initiatives.
    • Articulates different initiatives (e.g. people from the craft program receive tourists from the eco-tourism program and incentivize the territorial management organization; the renewable energy program provides energy to the Telecenters; the education program supports health prevention participative activities and environmental endeavours, etc.)
    • Uses PMES annual cycles (planning, monitoring, evaluation, and systematization) to ensure the organization’s initiatives are working transversally. So, for example, in January and February the organization devotes itself to define and publish its annual plan (which includes objectives, activities, indicators, expected outcomes, and funding administration and sources). In June and July, they do a mid-year evaluation and adapt the plan accordingly. And finally, in December they make an annual evaluation and plan the next cycle.
    • [This/the initiative]’s Strategies for Scalability

    Not only the vision but also the strategies of the organization intend all to create replicable models of action whose objective is to serve as demonstrative references for the State (not the government) and/or the private sector, so they learn better and cheaper ways for designing and implementing public policies/projects and adopt them.

    X argued that the organization’s mission is to create links between communities and partners from abroad rather than monopolizing the former; meaning that their objective is to create development models that can be further scaled by agents that are capable of implementing and funding them sustainably. Once this mission is achieved, the organization’s aim is to change its role from implementing the programs to creating management capacities in the communities, to oversee their continuous persistence and quality after adopted by either the State or the private sector.

    [This/the initiative] is currently requesting an independent agency’s help to systematize[This/the initiative]’s intervention model to be able to scale it, providing that it considers itself as a low cost and high impact sustainable development alternative whose construction is based on the know-how gained from more than 20 years of working with marginalized populations in the Amazon.

    In collaboration with[This/the initiative], Ashoka and McKinsey & Company (2010) made a noteworthy multi-annual strategic plan for scaling-up[This/the initiative]’s program (hereafter referred as the Strategic Plan) to envisage the perspectives and recommendations to expand[This/the initiative] and achieve, in 5 years, a “community integrated development participative model, with proper socio-environmental technologies, with low cost and high impact, consolidated in all direct attention areas and ready for replication in other regions” (x).

    The Strategic Plan explores the characteristics of[This/the initiative]’s model and its principal strengths and weaknesses before making some suggestions to the organization – all of them very illustrative of the factors related to its level of self-sustainability.

    It describes the organization’s value chain: the inputs it receives (e.g. financial resources, social demands, human resources, data, and information), the means through which the organization works to create value (e.g. participative processes, democracy, partnerships, strategic planning, trainings, exchanges, inter and multidisciplinary approaches, adaptation of international social technologies into the local context, and methodologies for the strengthening of community groups), and its outputs (e.g. learning and information, trust relationships, reference models for development initiatives, self-esteem, autonomy, social inclusion, influence in public policies, social work, trained professionals).

    The Strategic Plan also evaluates[This/the initiative]’s strengths (e.g. proper and replicable social technologies, measured benefits, co-management capacity, team’s expertise, knowledge on the region, capacity to propose and adapt, network of partners, visibility and credibility obtained, both locally and abroad), its opportunities (e.g. work in a region with global visibility – the Amazon – network of contacts, scope for gaining scale because of the interest that public administrations have on [This/the initiative]’s work), its weakness (e.g. spread of energy and resources in too many actions, non-satisfactory working conditions, insufficiency in the system of management and systematization of experiences, little participation of the Associates’ Council), and its challenges (lack of stability in the funding sources, limitedness and lack of flexibility of the resources available for institutional strengthening, lack of appropriateness of national policies for the Amazonian region, Amazonian predatory occupation processes).

    Correspondingly, some of the recommended strategies contained in the Strategic Plan for [This/the initiative]’s sustainability and scalability are:

    • The formation of a network of multipliers.
    • The expansion of communication tools.
    • The inter-institutional exchange of methodological processes of expansion.
    • The transfer, dissemination, and replication of environmental technologies.
    • The cooperation with the public and private sector.
    • The methodological reorientation to ensure a greater interaction with public policies and both public and private institutions, identifying common demands and possible cooperation initiatives, using information technologies for gaining scale.

    To enlarge[This/the initiative]’s reach without compromising its quality, the Strategic Plan recommends dividing the 5 years into 3 stages. During the first one, the areas that are currently intervened are consolidated as a permanent laboratory, its results are more comprehensively systematized, and priority is given to the Institutional Integration (which includes developing its communication means, inter-institutional agreements, methodological exchanges and consultancies, adapted socio-environmental expansion, transference, dissemination, and replication processes).

    During the second stage, the area of dissemination is gradually expanded, starting with[This/the initiative]’s more consolidated social technologies, especially 1) the health initiative – which includes preparatory actions for scalability (systematization of the Basic Attention Model that[This/the initiative] has implemented and is offering now to the new beneficiaries, consultancy services portfolio, prospective of potential regions and actors for the replication of the model, etc.). And, 2) its integrative development practices: also needs preparatory actions. Start with strategies of participative diagnosis and planning (conjuncture, identification of local actors and their perceptions, research about priorities for short, middle, and long terms, sectorial competences, etc.) culminating with a Development Plan with Recommendations for the application in the area of work.

    • Finally, stage 3 is suggested to be about articulating the Amazon with other regions around the globe, attracting proactive and strategic connections.
    • it is cost-effective – although initial expenses are heavy not so the future incidental ones;
    • [This/the initiative]’s alleged success in improving the quality of education in rural areas (especially multi-grade and poverty-stricken schools) convinced the Colombian government to elevate it on a national scale for a period of 10 years (starting from 1992), and it was implemented in 20, 000 rural schools all over the country.

    However, governmental support was not stable and the promotion of the model became vulnerable to political struggles/interests. Therefore they decided to create the[This/the initiative] Foundation as a social enterprise that seeks to generate surpluses to reinvest them in their social objective (to strengthen and promote[This/the initiative] pedagogic model’s scalability) and enlarge their impact and mission (x). As a result, their organization has become more self-sustainable because it doesn’t rely on the vulnerable support of the government for the achievement of their social objective.

    • The setting of this partnership, to consolidate, could incorporate some of the funding management and acquisition schemes mentioned in the recommendations of other case studies, such as the Trust Fund, the Parity Funds, etc.
    • [This/the initiative] strategies are quite comprehensive and integrative in reach because all funds collected are used to support both the sponsored child (and the different dimensions of its needs such as nutrition, medical attention, clean water, educational books, materials, teachers, etc.) and the whole community (clean water for drinking and health care). This means that all funds are combined and used to benefit all children and their community, and not only the sponsored children.

    The funds they collect are used to support both the sponsored child (basic needs such as nutrition, medical attention, clean water, educational books, materials, teachers, etc.), and the whole community (clean water for drinking and health care). This means that all funds collected are combined and used to benefit all children and their community, and not only the sponsored children.

    • El esquema de red que actualmente perfecciona el[Esta/la iniciativa] también constituye un mecanismo para su sustentabilidad. Las redes duran más que las personas (especialmente con el carácter rotativo de la plantilla del[Esta/la iniciativa]); permiten la creación de varios liderazgos y líneas de trabajo que no sólo se fortalecen unas a otras sino que sirven de respaldo por si alguna de ellas encuentra dificultades; gozan de presupuestos especiales; permiten compartir recursos y responsabilidades; y más importante, facilitan la misión del[Esta/la iniciativa] de abordar problemáticas de manera integral e inter/transdisciplinaria. En esta misma lógica, el[Esta/la iniciativa] se beneficia del trabajo de otros institutos de la universidad (y de fuera de ella), y les ofrece retroalimentación a cambio. Además, trabaja con el enfoque y métodos de la Complejidad, que al ofrecer herramientas para la comunicación transversal entre disciplinas, facilita la colaboración entre los miembros de su red. Ello tendrá alcances aún más significativos a largo plazo, pues el proceso de sintonización toma tiempo.
    • Los apoyos gubernamentales con que se financiaron los anteriores fueron todos a fondo perdido, lo cual si bien permitió la creatividad y la inversión en ideas arriesgadas, representaron también fuente de muchas presiones. Los creadores del[Esta/la iniciativa] se dieron cuenta de que clave para conseguir dichos financiamientos es expresar y demostrar de forma convincente la viabilidad de sus ideas y un historial de éxito (credibilidad), esto es, de cumplimiento y efectividad en el aprovechamiento de apoyos anteriormente recibidos. A su vez, han notado requiere contar con los recursos suficientes para avanzar el proyecto mientras autorizan los apoyos, que tardan mucho, dando mayor certeza de que éstos serán terminados conforme acordado.
    • A dicho éxito del proyecto ha ayudado la práctica de re-invertir todas las ganancias.
    • El régimen de donatarias autorizadas facilita que las iniciativas de desarrollo consigan apoyos financieros (porque pueden ser deducibles de impuestos para los donantes) y les exenta de pagar impuestos.
    • Desde que concluyó esa etapa de cursos,[Esta/la iniciativa]  ha dado consultoría a autoridades hacendarias, con la intención de sensibilizarlas respecto a las necesidades particulares de las iniciativas de desarrollo más vulnerables. Desde la perspectiva de[Esta/la iniciativa], los encargados de diseñar la legislación fiscal conocen poco de la realidad que se vive fuera del ambiente urbano y es por ello que han privilegiado mecanismos bastante estandarizados para la certificación y distribución de apoyos, que han reproducido las condiciones de desigualdad entre las iniciativas de desarrollo, al tener pocas previsiones para su trato diferenciado y por ende equitativo. Como resultado de lo anterior, muy pocas organizaciones culminan el trámite de reconocimiento como donatarias autorizadas con éxito.  De 60 organizaciones asesoradas por su grupo a la que se les dio seguimiento, menos de 10 lo concluyeron. Esta deserción se explica en parte por el hecho de que el proceso es complejo y no gratuito, y la desidia por parte de las OSC mucha, pues el trámite o es costoso (cuando la mayoría carece de recursos) o es gratuito pero lento y tedioso. Además, los costos del notario no se pueden evitar. Más aún, la estandarización de la normatividad favorece a las iniciativas con mayor grado de: 1. Estructuración (solidez, desalentando la innovación); 2. Vinculación con los donantes (son mundos que no se juntan); 3. Capital intelectual para enterarse y competir con éxito en las convocatorias por fondos, especialmente las internacionales (por idioma, formación, acceso a los medios, etc); 4. Capacidad económica para cubrir gastos de constitución legal (asesores en el proceso, notarios, transporte a las oficinas administrativas en las ciudades, principalmente la capital).

    Por lo anterior, para[Esta/la iniciativa] contar con el estatus de donataria autorizada no es para todos, y no basta para resolver las necesidades financieras de una organización porque las donaciones son pocas y difíciles de adquirir. Aún así, le considera una herramienta útil, de apoyo.

    • Para facilitar la venta de los árboles fomentan dos tipos de colaboración que aseguran la integridad del proyecto y con ella su mayor proyección y atractivo sin la necesidad de invertir recursos extra:

    Colaboración estrecha y de mutuo beneficio con otras Sociedades Anónimas (S.A.):

    -Una ofrece paseos de integración, retiros y pláticas a la medida para empresas (Coca Cola, El Metro, Coppel, etc), lo que le sirve a [Esta/la iniciativa] para hacerse de recursos extra y publicidad.

    -Otra, Hacienda X (desde 1999), ofrece alojamiento (hotel y campamentos); visitas culturales al Museo de Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz y al Museo de los Volcanes, al laberinto inglés, al parque de los venados, las águilas y las serpientes acariciables; instalaciones de deportes extremos como la tirolesa. Todos estos servicios y más están disponibles gratuitamente a los clientes de [Esta/la iniciativa]. Además, la Hacienda le envía sus clientes a éste último en visitas diarias a cambio de lo cual éste les regala pequeños árboles, les ofrece pláticas sobre manejo sustentable de los bosques y paseos por el vivero y el bosque.

    -Otra más organiza visitas escolares que son reconocidas por la Secretaría de Educación Pública, pues están diseñadas de manera tal que sirvan para reforzar la enseñanza de materias del plan de estudios como ciencias, educación ambiental (manejo de basura, aprovechamiento del agua de lluvia, etc), civismo, etc. Estas visitas (van como 20 escuelas al día) tienen un costo de$140 pesos por alumno y representan un ingreso extra para [Esta/la iniciativa], quien a cambio obsequia cupones de descuento en árboles de navidad para cada alumno, un árbol pequeño del vivero y un certificado de participación. Aunque esta colaboración le es redituable a [Esta/la iniciativa] en términos financieros y de publicidad, un reto que tiene que vencer para asegurar un mayor impacto de su objetivo de sensibilización ambiental es la significativa apatía que parece caracterizar a buena parte de los alumnos y maestros que les visitan (una tercera parte según nuestra fuente).