♣ Prioritizing relevant education and technical training

"♣": Estrategias específicas empleadas por los estudios de caso para incrementar su nivel de auto-sustentabilidad.Pueden estar en inglés o español. Por favor usa el traductor del menú lateral 

"♣": Specific strategies used by the case studies to increase their degree of self-sustainability.They might be in English or in Spanish. Please use the side menu translator
  • This support allowed them to:
    • pay for the training of staff (in cooking, tourism guide, languages, hiking, project management, entrepreneurship, customer service, conflict resolution, digit-puncture, first aid, etc)
  • RECT’s development plan focuses on community peasant ecotourism. The communities, each organized into cooperative societies comprising several families, analyzed which local resources could be used. They carried out environmental impact assessments to identify the number of visitors that could be received without affecting the environment. They have trained the participating villagers and have distributed responsibilities so that all aspects of the eco-tourism industry are covered.
  • The detailed and holistic development plan that allowed Songshan to acquire the UNESCO label, considered aspects such as:
  • The park’s Geology Museum receives visits from students of all levels. The small ones as part of programs for ecological awareness, and the elder ones as part of higher education training activities, especially in earth sciences.
  • Since 2001, the UNESCO Global Geoparks Network has fostered the creation and linkage of geoparks in several countries. This scheme promotes a sustainable development model that requires geoparks to demonstrate their capacity to:
    • unify and protect areas of extensive geological and natural value
    • encourage research
    • promote education for sustainable development
  • La [This/The initiative] Farm is a project led by the civil organization ASODECAH in Costa Rica, which seeks to create and promote best ecological and human practices through volunteer programs, workshops, school visits and collaborative activities with the surrounding communities. It also offers a space for those who seek an alternative way of life, living and working on the farm, and contributing to formulate civic awareness regarding sustainability.
  • Approximately 20 years ago, the farm was established in the town of La Flor in the mountains of the Costa Rican province of Cartago, with the aim of working together with local populations in the construction of an alternative and sustainable agriculture model that would promote environmental, social and intercultural education among the same communities and with foreign students and visitors.
  • On the other hand, in order to extend the scope of its project to promote education for sustainability, the promoters of the initiative took advantage of its 10 hectares of land to build cabins with capacity for approximately 40 people. These allow them to receive not only tourists and students, but also volunteers. The latter, in exchange for lodging, food, training, and first-hand experience in techniques and models for sustainable agricultural development, not only offer their support for the maintenance of the farm -cleaning of roads, working in the garden, recovering of the forest , constructing cabins, taking care of the animals, improving the means of dissemination of the project and social networks, etc. Some also help by giving courses both to local communities (free of charge) – as mentioned before – and to other visitors to the farm. Currently the courses include the teaching of Spanish for foreigners, techniques of sustainable agriculture, yoga, medicinal plants, dance, etc. The volunteer program is still working on finding mechanisms to attract the Costa Rican population from other cities, who are also unfamiliar with the concept of ecological farms and for whom it is difficult to pay for their living expenses without receiving a wage as the farm requires them. Currently most visitors are from the United States, Canada and Europe.
  • In addition, the members of the initiative began to invite students and volunteers to spend time on the farm caring for the forest, working in the garden, and contributing to the communities with donations and working together to improve their conditions (eg cleaning the river , teaching courses in schools, organizing events, etc). This not only served for the civic-environmental training of the visitors but also that of the benefited communities.
  • By having education and technical training as key components of broader development models, initiatives can further promote developmental sustainability in the sense of:
  • changing the informational basis that affects local development praxis, giving local agents tools to define, negotiate their development priorities, as well as to appropriate responsibilities — When we talk about increasing the capacity of the different development agents to build the type of life they want, we are talking about creating the conditions to ensure that their range of real opportunities is as broad and comprehensive as possible. That is why education is important, because it broadens this spectrum of opportunities, and because it gives elements to question them, to decide, to take responsibility and to negotiate with other affected actors.
  • building local capacity to maintain, support and appropriate the initiative’s different resources and programs, including the educational themselves, reducing the need for the support of external experts and the costs of hiring them and enabling decentralization — education and trainings in fund raising and other management skills, legal knowledge, production and repair of goods and facilities, etc.
  • enhancing educational participation across generations (in the case of community development initiatives)—we know that educated mothers tend to seek ways of educating their children.
  • Both the farming and animal care processes use ecological and novel technologies, designed from both the knowledge that local farmers still use to assist in the care of the rented lands, and from the results of the research carried out there, conducted by partner universities – who either investigate the model of the farm, or use it as a pilot area for the exploration and implementation of innovative alternative technologies and for the formation of a talent pool. The participation of all these actors then allows the farm and its processes to be always monitored and in the process of innovation.

    • As a social enterprise that serves as an integrated platform for agricultural development, the farm is maintained with the income received both from the rent of land and animals and from the school trips, mentioned above. In addition, it has set up a dining room that operates during the weekends and a store in which it sells its own products (eggs, meat, vegetables), as well as some from other collectives with similar working approaches (with commission), which makes the visit to the farm more attractive. The farm also offers consultancies and training to officials and organizations that want to replicate the model, as well as to companies that want to adopt greener technologies. It also offers carpentry and local arts workshops. It works with the support of volunteers — some thesis students, other young people who want to experience a way of life different from the one offered by the city — and still relies heavily on donations from both foundations and local governments, which help, in part, to finance scholarships for interns who help manage the farm. This diversity of income sources allows the subsistence of the project in a region where land rent is expensive.

    • The farm project is sustainable also because it benefits several actors. Researchers, students, organizations, farmers, businessmen and officials learn from its experience or take advantage of it to experiment alternatives. Participating citizens (usually middle class) have access to organic products at competitive prices, a place of rest and closeness to nature that they can share with their children, and a community dynamic in which they share their products, learn recipes, etc. The local communities benefit from the payment of the rent of the lands – whose rights they keep -, from the hiring of workers in the farm, from the products that they sell to it, and from the training that the farm offers them to pack and sell the leftover products of their household-farming production (seasonal fruits for example) and to recover and improve their cultivation techniques (most of the traditional knowledge has been lost with the urbanization process).

    • [This/The initiative]  Farm was the first farm to implement the model of Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) in China, a model of sustainable agriculture that has inspired the creation of more than 500 farms and forged entrepreneurial attitudes in several of its participants (volunteers, residents, etc) — creating, as Baizigui, in charge of the communication area, suggests, an awareness within the community in regards to “organic agriculture, as well as recreational and natural education and the role of the public garden model”.

    • To scale up its model of sustainable rural development, [This/The initiative]  Farm has been providing technical consultancies and training in natural agriculture to other rural cooperatives, through a working model that includes: 1. The establishment of a network of local community-based sales channels; 2. The use and promotion of natural agricultural technologies; 3. The development and strengthening of local cooperatives with a comprehensive set of services; 4. The development of local certifications for organic production that empower smallholder farmers by creating a verification process in which they, together with consumers and other stakeholders are directly involved— named  Participatory Guarantee System (PGS); 5. The development of stations for research, knowledge-transfer and skill-development (technical, financial, marketing and social services to smallholder farmers and their communities).

    • The company was created in 2016 by business students of the University of Hong Kong — now 5 or 6 of them plus vendors —, who inspired by similar initiatives that operate in the United States, England and other countries, collaborate with companies and universities to develop their model and fulfill their mission to raise awareness among citizens about the misunderstanding that exists with the best before date labeling, ensuring a more efficient and ethical use of food resources (and less waste), and reducing the ecological impact that their production and waste generate. It does this by selling these products at low cost, which its members believe will help accelerate the impact of the government campaigns already undertaken to clarify the meaning of the labels for the public, since the main attraction for people seems to be the low cost of the products. “When people see that they sell products which best before date has already passed, they will begin to change their habits. This is how we support and accelerate the government’s educational campaign”, argues one of the creators of GreenPrice. For him, what the government should do is to prohibit suppliers from throwing away products whose expiration date has not yet arrived. But the government is slow, and it is that margin of time, in what the rules change, what GreenPrice uses to boost its project, giving consumers an alternative.

    • Furthermore, to extend the impact of the initiative in terms of raising awareness about the importance of consuming products in an ethical, environmental and socially responsible manner, GreenPrice also teaches courses in schools, companies and community centers (inside and outside of Hong Kong) and shares information through its Web, Facebook and Instagram platforms.

    • [This/the initiative] supports migrant workers to improve their living conditions in their destination cities by promoting their rights in the public and private sectors, offering training courses and advising them in urgent situations through a free hotline.

    • In 2006, a group of these migrants founded [This/the initiative]. This non-governmental organization created a toll-free hotline service that migrants from the cities of Beijing, Wuhan and Suzhou can call to request counseling in urgent and immediate situations — eg. help to get a job, to resolve legal disputes with their contractors, to defend their social and political rights, to solve health problems, etc. [This/the initiative] offers this advice thanks to the collaboration of a staff of around 10 people and more than 300 volunteers, all of them ex-migrants.

    • With the support of this network and in addition to the on-line consultancies, [This/the initiative] organizes activities to expand the opportunities of this population to adapt and improve their living conditions in their destination city. These include psychological care, book loans through a mobile bookstore, badminton, ping pong, karaoke, health training, courses on how to use a computer, get a job (write a CV for example), develop cultural skills such as theater, defend labor benefits, select and organize representatives to negotiate as a group with the employers (collective bargaining), etc. It also encourages members of the network to engage in public benefit activities — planting trees, donating blood, etc. — that help them organize and improve their surroundings. To date, more than 14,000 people have participated in these activities.

    • In addition to the above, the initiative promotes the rights of migrants and works to raise awareness of their conditions through activities such as public performances, the publication and distribution of research papers and books on the subject, and the training in Corporate Social Responsibility to companies, governments, and civic organizations. The latter includes guidelines to help them promote the organization of their members or employees, to establish a free internal hotline for them, to respect their labor rights, etc. Although in the opinion of Ma Yang, founder of [This/the initiative], Corporate Social Responsibility helps companies to improve their image and comply with the stipulations of the law, the vast majority of companies that have shown interest in it and have searched for their advice has been rather foreign (including Nike).

    • [This/the initiative]’s intervention in labor disputes and its tasks of promoting the rights of this sector have generated many resistances and made it difficult to obtain financial support that, rather, usually comes from foundations and foreign embassies (mainly). [This/the initiative] also collaborates with volunteer organizations of universities, hospitals, the justice bureau, unions, news agencies and other government agencies, which in addition to financing support it with courses, training, and know-how. All these associations, coordinated by a department exclusively responsible for public relationships, allow the initiative to work project by project and ensure the gratuity of its services.

    • The [This/the initiative] team also spent 3 years to subsidize the communities and train their leaders, so that they could get into contact, know and organize directly with their consumers through the Wechat platform (a kind of fusion between WhatsApp and Facebook widely used in China), as well as another special platform that built a group of volunteers to receive orders and feedback from consumers and make payments. The training offered by the [This/the initiative] team to both the leaders and the other farmers has also included research for the recovery of traditional agricultural technologies, visits to markets of organic agricultural products and projects of Community Supported Agriculture to learn about their methods of preparation and packaging of products, etc.

    • Nowadays, the peasants of these populations organize with the consumers of Beijing independently, without the intermediation of the researchers and without their subsidy. For that, they use these same platforms, on which they form groups of families according to the points of delivery in the city to which they pertain, which today are 7 and of different sizes — some groups have reached 150 people. They share photos and texts with their stories, their homes and families, their seasonal fresh products, their difficulties, their promotions, etc. To strengthen the relationship and especially the trust with consumers, they also use these electronic means to meet special demands, show people recipes with which they can cook the products offered at the [This/the initiative] Market, explain their agricultural production process, share information on food safety, etc.

    • The web platforms, the process of selecting, reviewing and packaging the products, as well as the frequent observation visits by the [This/the initiative] members to the communities (in which they carry out monitoring processes from time to time), all serve as supervision and feedback systems for the initiative. These systems allow it to devise measures to ensure significant changes every year, which enable it to adapt and face implementation problems — such as making visits to other markets in Beijing to learn how to meet the specific demands of the city’s consumers (who have other food culture) or ensure the conservation of the products during their transportation (buying a packaging machine, refrigerators, etc). 

    • The model of the [This/the initiative] Market that the [This/the initiative] team has designed consists, then, in helping to form a consumer network and in obtaining financing to subsidize the training of communities and their leaders (which they have obtained from foundations such as the Bread for the World, from Germany), so that they can become independent as soon as possible. This is helped by the contribution of volunteers (generally from the consumer’s network), who until now have supported for free with the creation of the web platform mentioned above, offering places to receive and distribute the products in the city and other logistics services, and/or donating clothes, toys, etc.

    • Personnel from the boat also offered basic medical and dental attention, family planning trainings, minor surgeries, adapted technologies such as micro-systems for the provision and treatment of water, house filters, wells, etc.
      • The Sustainable Entrepreneurship Program, for example, implements demonstrative initiatives for resources’ management and the acquisition of legal certifications to increase family income generation, increase food security, and reduce the impact on the environment, as socioeconomic strategic components to improve the quality of life, environmental conservation, and regional development (e.g. the communitarian ecotourism or the crafts production with local forest’s resources).
  • This program responds to the fact that the Amazonian communities live in an extremely vulnerable region where land occupation and resources mismanagement are the prevailing practices, and also that the government conditional cash transfers’ development model Bolsa Familia have resulted in the disappearance of local production and extreme dependency from the communities to external subsidies.
    • [This/the initiative] has never had schools. Compulsory Education’s coverage in the area is almost 100%, partly because of[This/the initiative]’s advocacy efforts in the last 20 years. It rather had focus on complementary activities to the work of public schools. Since more than 53% of the local population is below 19 years old,[This/the initiative] mainly works with children and the youth with programs for community and environmental education, cultural promotion and diffusion, digital inclusion, and complementary actions for schools. During the latter, local education-related actors (communities, schools, and multiplier of actions) are trained to create supporting regionalized learning materials with participatory methodologies. This counteracts the lack of relevance of local schools’ curricula.

    As with the health program, while[This/the initiative]’s efforts where concentrated until not long ago into complementing schools’ activities, they are now focused on a partnership with 5 schools, the Carlos Chagas Foundation, and the Education Ministry of Santarem municipality, to work on a pilot project for making education for the Amazonian populations more relevant.

    For this purpose, they also use the participatory mapping methodology. Children draw maps of their communities that include not only their inhabitants, but also their institutions, geographical conditions, resources, etc. This methodology helps both[This/the initiative] and educators to identify the perception children have about the place they live, what is important, whose concepts are embedded into their mindset, etc. Based on these concepts and images,[This/the initiative] helps educators and school authorities to sensitize teachers about what is relevant in the region (many teachers are not from the communities where they work), and adapt local materials and the curricula with images, subjects, and methodologies that are more familiar to the children.

    The objective of this partnership is to set an example of how to improve the quality of the public schools in the region that, if successful, is to be scaled to the whole municipality. That is, as the case of the health program, to serve as a demonstrative experience that aims at being escalated by the State, with the argument that it is the latter’s responsibility to provide access to quality education for all. The project so far has been stopped because the Carlos Chagas Foundation cancelled all of its funding this year.

    • [This/the initiative] also ensures that all its programs are supported by training to form “multiplier” agents, that is, local leaders that can manage and disseminate the programs independently.
    • By November 2012, 75,000 children had attended the Night Schools since the program’s inception; more than 4,000 of them, including 1,250 girls, have continued attending school in the formal mainstream education system (x).

    Since 1988, the[This/the initiative] has reproduced its model in day schools (Siksha Niketan schools), which have their own governing body but collaborate with the College to provide an alternative for children not enrolled, for whatever reason, in government or other private schools. The[This/the initiative] has also worked with the local government in pilot projects to adapt the program’s model into the mainstream education system to help it attract dropouts and out-of-school children (Siksha Karmi schools), but these efforts were largely disrupted because of tensions with official teachers who feared they might be replaced by local personnel. The Model and its Inherent Sources of Sustainability

    The success of the program in preventing these children from being excluded from school depends mainly on its sensitivity to their particular socio-economic and cultural contexts, and its adaptation of its model accordingly. It does that by: adapting its schedule to the children’s constraints; integrating the schools within a network of other development programs that support the children and their families; decentralizing the program so that it can better respond to different contexts; and offering an intercultural education modality that makes education relevant not only in terms of the mainstream curriculum but also for the children and their families and communities.

    Further examples of this integration among projects lie in the training offered to teachers by the[This/the initiative]’s Health Centre to identify common health issues in their students, and in the vocational training that the children receive.

    The program also takes children on day visits to their communities’ local institutions (post offices, banks, police stations, and land records offices) so they learn how they work. Sometimes they organize short trips to nearby cities, but relatively infrequently, not least because the schools operate at night. To complement the curriculum, the program also provides some vocational training. In the words of the organization: “The[This/the initiative] believes that ‘literacy’ is what one acquires in school, but ‘education’ is what one gains from family, traditions, culture, environment, and personal experiences. Both are important for individual growth. At the[This/the initiative], everyone is considered an education resource, the teacher as well as the student and the literate as well as illiterate” (x).

    Teachers are prepared in a ten-day training program run annually during the off-season, and they meet monthly to discuss teaching methods and problems, and to improve their teaching skills. Teachers are also taught to repair the solar lamps and, as mentioned earlier, to identify common health issues in their students.

    Besides following the national curricula, the program puts a special emphasis on providing children with an education that is culturally and linguistically relevant for them and for their families, rather than a curriculum that would serve to encourage migration to the cities (and, possibly, a life in an urban slum).

    • One of the main outcomes of UNESCO’s Expert Meeting on Intercultural Education (UNESCO, 2006a) were the Guidelines on Intercultural Education (UNESCO, 2006b), which set a general overview of the main principles with which to identify an intercultural education model: a model that builds upon the diverse systems of knowledge and experiences of the learners and their communities, and uses methods that are culturally appropriated, that are based on practical, participatory, and contextualized learning techniques; a model whose teachers are familiarized with practical, participatory, and contextualized teaching methods; a model in which there is strong interaction between the school and the community, both involved in the educational processes; and a model in which there is vast participation of learners, parents and other community members, teachers, and administrators in the school management, supervision and control, decision-making, planning and the implementation of education programs, and the development of curricula, and learning and teaching materials.[This/the initiative] is certainly a practical demonstration of such concepts, since it highlights the importance of co-management, relevant education, and strong context integration in order to ensure equal access to quality education
    • [This/the initiative] mainly sustains itself by selling the model to governments, NGOs, private schools, etc. as a package of consultancy services that includes the settlement of demonstration schools in already existing schools (pilot schools), the co-participatory adaptation of its prototype guides and learning materials (their methodological structure), and technical assistance (training to different stakeholders) for the application and implementation of the model and for the community’s involvement. This way[This/the initiative] capitalizes on its know-how on the systematization of the school’s processes to promote stakeholders’ ownership of it and on the adaptation of the model to different contexts, offering an educational solution to improve quality, effectiveness, equity, and sustainability of education.

    Although[This/the initiative] doesn’t get involved with the school’s financial sustainability, because they don’t implement[This/the initiative]’s model, but only provide technical assistance to already existing

    [This/the initiative] Foundation in Colombia has been internationally recognized because of its pedagogic model for quality rural education in rural areas (especially in multi-grade and poverty-stricken schools) that has attracted the attention of many countries’ governments. The model’s success in raising schools’ quality relates to its comprehensive focus on academic improvement, equity in education opportunities, and the community’s involvement (the model counts, for example, with a Children’s and a Parents’ government that run the school).

    • Youth unemployment skills training.
    • [This/the initiative] has 75 years of experience working with marginalized children and their communities in 31 countries (approx. 17.8 million children and their families participated by 2012) subsidizing the scarce local resources to “empower a cycle of improvement that touches every member of society” and “create the environments children need to thrive” (x). They also work with local groups and parent committees to identify key local problems and possible solutions, all of them family oriented, such as:

    a. Trainings/awareness programs about child protection (e.g. for parents).

    b. Early childhood psychosocial, health, and education support.

    c. Youth unemployment skills training.

    d. Health care and sanitation (nutrition: establishing renewable resources of food and safe water).

    e. Basic education (building schools, vocational skills)

    f. Micro-enterprises/jobs for generating family income.

    g. Emergencies programs for children that are victims of wars and natural disasters.

    • El C[Esta/la iniciativa] busca, desde 2008, atender una de las más importantes carencias de la Universidad…: la desvinculación que existe entre sus miembros e instituciones, y con otros sectores de la sociedad, y que le impide aprovechar al máximo el capital intelectual de su comunidad para atender problemas del país que por su naturaleza multi-factorial y multidimensional, requieren de análisis e intervenciones integrales.

    Ese es precisamente el objetivo del[Esta/la iniciativa]: catalizar discusiones pertinentes y desarrollar las herramientas estructurales, conceptuales y metodológicas que faciliten que cualquier miembro de la universidad, independientemente de su campo de conocimiento o adscripción, tenga las condiciones apropiadas trabajar de forma colaborativa (inter y/o transdisciplinaria) en estos problemas transversales, aportando sus diversos enfoques y conocimientos. Esto tanto para proyectos a largo plazo como para la efectiva respuesta de la comunidad académica a problemáticas emergentes con carácter urgente. Entre estas herramientas el[Esta/la iniciativa] ha ideado, hasta ahora, la celebración de reuniones focales y foros de análisis, el préstamo de sus instalaciones para encuentros entre la comunidad universitaria, la puesta en práctica de seminarios, cursos y congresos amparados en programas sombrilla con carácter presuntamente transversal y sujetos a evaluación periódica de pertinencia

    • Modelo: Hub/incubadora de proyectos que cumplen 3 criterios: 1. Bienestar integral, 2. Arte y cultura, 3. Armonía con medio ambiente.

    Dan varios apoyos a proyectos como HUB:

    espacio físico/terreno

    Asesorías/talleres de planeación

    Les ayudan a conseguir escuelas que les visiten

    Les ayudan a planear sus talleres


    Les organizan eventos

    Ayudan a establecer alianzas

    Casi todos los proyectos contemplan la impartición de talleres y cursos de sensibilización (estrategia sustentabilidad objetivo proyecto).

    El proyecto busca ser integral a diferentes niveles. En primer lugar, los proyectos se complementarían entre sí: el huerto urbano compraría composta y su producción abastecería al restaurante, por ejemplo. En segundo lugar, se ofrece a los clientes una diversidad de actividades de forma que se aumenten los rendimientos de su visita: además de hacer algún deporte, pueden tomar un taller de apicultura, visitar el mariposario, comer en el restaurante y llevar a su perro a entrenar. En tercer lugar, se ofrecen talleres, capacitaciones y visitas escolares, de manera que se transmite el conocimiento y la sensibilización de temas ambientales con el público en general a todos los niveles. Esto haría al proyecto más sustentable en la medida en que sus actividades tengan un alcance a largo plazo en la población que participa.

    • Para enfrentar posibles amenazas al bosque de carácter impredecible, se han diseñado medidas de prevención que incluyen:

    •brechas contra incendio

    •entrenamiento a todo el personal para abatir incendios

    •cultivos mixtos de árboles que evitarían que la plaga en un tipo árbol afectase a los otros y que previenen el desgaste de la tierra

    •contratación de un staff propio de expertos (biólogos, ingenieros y técnicos).

    •Adicionalmente, aunque aseguran que la seguridad no supone un problema en la región, un equipo de guardabosques resguarda de la potencial tala y robo de los árboles

    organiza visitas escolares que son reconocidas por la Secretaría de Educación Pública, pues están diseñadas de manera tal que sirvan para reforzar la enseñanza de materias del plan de estudios como ciencias, educación ambiental (manejo de basura, aprovechamiento del agua de lluvia, etc), civismo, etc. Las visitas están co-organizadas por ellos y por la Hacienda X en un esquema de colaboración muy estrecho. La visita compuesta incluye educación ambiental, cultural y entretenimiento, es un plan para un día completo. Estas visitas (van como 20 escuelas al día) tienen un costo de$140 pesos por alumno y representan un ingreso extra para[Esta/la iniciativa], quien a cambio obsequia cupones de descuento en árboles de navidad para cada alumno, un árbol pequeño del vivero y un certificado de participación. Aunque esta colaboración le es redituable a[Esta/la iniciativa] en términos financieros y de publicidad, un reto que tiene que vencer para asegurar un mayor impacto de su objetivo de sensibilización ambiental es la significativa apatía que parece caracterizar a buena parte de los alumnos y maestros que les visitan (una tercera parte según nuestra fuente).

    • Además de dichas colaboraciones que ayudan a multiplicar el impacto del proyecto para la sensibilización ambiental en diferentes sectores de la población (empresas, escuelas, familias),[Esta/la iniciativa] busca promover su modelo y escalarlo a través de cursos de capacitación técnica para la instalación y mantenimiento de viveros, de sistemas de captación de agua de lluvia, etc, que ofrece de forma gratuita a campesinos y otras organizaciones tanto nacionales como extranjeras que les visitan. También ofrecen pláticas de sensibilización ambiental.
    • [Esta/la iniciativa] se dedica a dar asesoría legal y fiscal a organizaciones de la sociedad civil (OSC) para su constitución legal y como donatarias autorizadas, con el fin de fortalecerlas y abrirles las puertas a más apoyos. El régimen de donatarias autorizadas facilita que las iniciativas de desarrollo consigan apoyos financieros (porque pueden ser deducibles de impuestos para los donantes) y les exenta de pagar impuestos. El proyecto surgió con un curso impartido para estudiantes de la Universidad Iberoamericana en la Ciudad de México llamado “Marco Legal y fiscal de la filantropía”. En éste se buscaba llenar dos huecos a la vez, sin necesidad de una gran inversión en trámites y recursos financieros: por un lado, ayudar a “saciar el hambre de asesoría del mundo de las OSC”. Por el otro, contribuir a la formación en este rubro de abogados fiscalistas que pudiesen adquirir experiencia brindando asesorías gratuitas a varias iniciativas durante todo un semestre.
    • Contemplates the training of local stakeholders to follow-up, and supervises its implementation in creating “microcenters” where they meet once a month to disseminate innovations and resolve problems together. For this purpose they are currently preparing a virtual platform as a complementary instrument.
    • [This/the initiative] mainly sustains itself by selling the model (consultancy services) to governments, NGOs, private schools, etc. as a package that includes:

         1. The settlement of demonstrative schools in already existing schools (pilot schools).

         2. The co-participatory adaptation of its prototype guides and learning materials (their methodological structure).

    3. Technical assistance (training different stakeholders including teachers – that are educated in the same way they are expected to educate their students, – parents, administrators) for the application and implementation of the model and for the community’s involvement.

    model is in itself a tool to make schools highly self-sustainable because: a) it is systemic – works with teachers, students, and parents in all educational aspects; b) uses the promotion of social participation as its transversal dimension – all stakeholders participate in educational decisions, which motivates their ownership of the projects; c) it is trans-sectoral – it promotes the formation of skills as the basis of entrepreneurship reducing rural children’s migration to the cities, and emphasis is put on children’s application of their knowledge within their family and community; d) it complements the training of local stakeholders with mechanisms for the discussion and dissemination of innovations; e) it is cost-effective – although initial expenses are heavy not so the future incidental ones; f) it promotes interculturality – the national curriculum is reinforced but they place strong emphasis on the relevance of education and the appreciation of rural life and local knowledge, which has immediate effects in the community’s life and, as a result, in the involvement of parents in the learning process

    • As mentioned earlier,[This/the initiative] started as a health delivery program, providing adapted technologies such as micro-systems for the provision and treatment of water, house filters, wells, and rustic pits.

    In the year 2006, the organization acquired a boat (the Abare Ship) that, making regular rounds from community to community, approached people with an interdisciplinary team presented as Mocorongo Great Circus teaching people means to take care of their hygiene and prevent diseases with fun and participatory games. Personnel from the boat also offered basic medical and dental attention, vaccinations, family planning trainings, minor surgeries, etc.

    The success of the project resulted in its absorption by the Brazilian Ministry of Health and in its escalation to State level in 2010.

    • Online donations. These donations are received “in honor or memory of” and gift cards that are offered with exact amounts (also open) to receive single or concurrent support for specific objectives (e.g. workbooks for 5 children, signboards for 18 schools, 5 day training workshop for 30 teachers, etc.). The “donate” button appears on each section of the website (ibid.).
    • It promotes interculturality: the national curriculum is reinforced but they make strong emphasis on the relevance of education and the appreciation of rural life and local knowledge, which has immediate effects in the life of the community and, as a result, in the involvement of parents in the learning process.
    • Efecto multiplicador (docencia, capacitaciones): La apuesta del dueño es que alguno de los niños visitantes llegue a ser presidente de la República y haga las cosas distinto
    • Finding enterprises whose employees match the donations collected for community sponsorship. Differently from the matching/parity schemes used by[This/the initiative] and[This/the initiative],[This/the initiative] usually uses this scheme with enterprises that work permanently with one particular region/population (e.g. a coffee enterprise that buys most of its coffee from one region). The scheme[This/the initiative] uses is to link the enterprises employees with the communities they work with is implementing a dynamic where each employee donates a certain percentage of his salary to the NGO’s initiative/program in the community, and the enterprise doubles that amount. This strengthens the wellbeing both of the community and the company’s employees. The employees are invited to inquire in their enterprises’ Human Research Department if their company already has a “matching gift program” and join it. The sponsorships are intended to a specific target: ensure the community’s self-sustainability in an agreed period of time. The money to find the partner enterprise comes from the[This/the initiative]’s main branch, and it is recovered from the money the enterprise provides in the sponsorship budget. This budget is allocated into capacity building programs for the community.[This/the initiative] is a Civil Association and each of its local offices are Civil Associations as well, and not a part of[This/the initiative]’s main office. So the budget goes to increasing the community Civil Association’s self-sustainability (training them on getting funds, managing programs, establishing cooperatives, increasing social participation, etc.). The Enterprise and[This/the initiative] make an agreement where the local Civil Association (the community organized) ensures results over a certain period of time (10, 20 years), and if there are not results (periodical evaluations) the funding is stopped. In short: the partnership contemplates an Exit Plan of both the enterprise and[This/the initiative]’s main branch with the intention of ensuring a decentralized development program.
    • The prototype alternative market model promoted by[This/the initiative] and that inspired the[This/the initiative] Project, comprises, according to Luis Lopezllera’s “Money is not enough, what to do?” Manual (2008), the integration of an alternative economic system that includes at least the following:

    1. The granting of memberships for partners.

    2. The signing of a letter of commitment agreed on the rules of the exchange.

    3. The creation of a user directory based on the planning of a consumer basket (that defines what kind of partners are needed, including foreign partners, if the locals cannot fulfil the need).

    4. The training in person and/or through a brief Operation Manual.

    5. The provision of the barter/exchange vouchers to the partners.

    6. The creation of a regular newsletter that accompanies and strengthens the project.

    7. The creation and distribution of educational and publicizing materials.

    8. The establishment of a promotional team (volunteers).

    9. The organization of regular meetings for the project’s development.

    10. The organization of decisional deliberative assemblies of associated partners (decentralization).

    11. The establishment of cellular stores for the public (that link together, give certainty, and facilitate the buying of products for those who cannot attend the market’s meetings because of logistical problems).

    12. The organization of local fairs, private or public, gatherings, visits, courses, and workshops (introductory lectures and retreats).

    13. The organization of regional or national meetings (with similar networks).

    14. The use of advanced communication and dissemination means.

    15. The procurement of infrastructure and support resources (property for the shop and office, meeting room, exhibition room, furniture, telephone, computer, projector, transportation, support fund, etc.).

    • Educación:

    La educación está hecha para prepararte para la competencia, les llaman competencias. Por ende, ofreció a hijas salirse de escuela en secundaria. Una se decidió quedar, bajo advertencia de que pasaría al anonimato (de grupos de 13 personas a cientos). La otra decidió estudiar en casa por su cuenta en internet. Son las que heredarán el proyecto.

    Escuela no relevante a sus necesidades, muy jerárquica y de memorización.

    • [This/the initiative]’s general coordinator, considers that the organization’s health mission is accomplished because it has not only achieved its objective of providing health access to the populations in the area it serves, but it has been escalated in the whole state thanks to the organization’s pragmatism and its acknowledgement that the State’s delivery and funding capacity is bigger. Therefore,[This/the initiative]’s role in the area of health has changed. Now it is focused on training communities for the management and social control of these social policies to monitor the State intervention’s quality, which has implied a great detachment effort for the organization.
    • some of the recommended strategies contained in the Strategic Plan for [This/the initiative]’s sustainability and scalability are:
      • The formation of a network of multipliers.
      • The expansion of communication tools.
      • The inter-institutional exchange of methodological processes of expansion.
      • The transfer, dissemination, and replication of environmental technologies.
      • The cooperation with the public and private sector.
      • The methodological reorientation to ensure a greater interaction with public policies and both public and private institutions, identifying common demands and possible cooperation initiatives, using information technologies for gaining scale.
    • the[This/the initiative] could profit by innovating new means to motivate local production and vocational trainings to create long-term economic autonomy both for the people and for the program.