♣ Capacidad de promoción

"♣": Estrategias específicas empleadas por los estudios de caso para incrementar su nivel de auto-sustentabilidad.Pueden estar en inglés o español. Por favor usa el traductor del menú lateral 

"♣": Specific strategies used by the case studies to increase their degree of self-sustainability.They might be in English or in Spanish. Please use the side menu translator
    • Los líderes de la iniciativa entrevistados aseguran que la nominación como Geoparque Global de la UNESCO les ha beneficiadomucho por la influencia y el aprendizaje que han tenido como consecuencia de su intercambio con otros parques de la red (por ejemplo sus formas de enseñanza a los niños, que ahora no sólo han copiado sino, en su opinión, mejorado al elaborar libros y técnicas especiales para ellos); por el intercambio cultural y la vinculación que han tenido gracias a un mayor número de visitas entre colegas y que tiene un valor especial porque China estuvo cerrada mucho tiempo; por la proyección internacional que les da, y por el consecuente aumento en su capacidad para atraer turistas (al contar con un sello de nivel mundial).
  •  Desde el año 2001, UNESCO ha impulsado la creación y vinculación entre geoparques de varios países bajo la sombrilla de la Red Global de Geoparques de la UNESCO. Este esquema busca fomentar un modelo de desarrollo sustentable que exige que los geoparques demostren su capacidad para unificar y proteger áreas de extenso valor geológico y natural, animen su investigación y promuevan la educación para el desarrollo sustentable,  salvaguardando y diseminando la cultura local, de manera que las poblaciones locales puedan mitigar riesgos, apreciar sus recursos naturales y culturales, y beneficiarse económicamente de la creación de oportunidades económicas como el geoturismo.
  • Granja de Agricultura Sostenida por la Comunidad que promueve el desarrollo sustentable facilitando la participación social — mediante visitas, renta de tierras cultivables, demostraciones de agricultura ecológica, consultorías, educación y capacitaciones, investigación y desarrollo de tecnologías, así como investigación teórica y promoción de políticas.
  • Evidentemente este esquema beneficia a todos por la contribución que hace para reducir el impacto ambiental. Más aún, beneficia:

      • A GreenPrice, porque le genera ganancias como empresa que le permiten asegurar la rentabilidad financiera del proyecto de forma sustentable — a diferencia de si estuviesen constituidos como organización no gubernamental.
    • A los clientes, porque les permite acceder a productos que de otra manera estarían fuera de su alcance, mientras contribuyen, en principio, a resolver los problemas éticos y ambientales que GreenPrice atiende. Aquí es importante mencionar que la población nicho del proyecto son ciudadanos de clase media, sobre todo adultos. Primero porque las organizaciones civiles que recolectan y redistribuyen desperdicios de alimentos en Hong Kong — de restaurantes y no de distribuidores — se enfocan a las poblaciones más pobres y el sector más adinerado no está particularmente interesado en conseguir sus productos a menor precio. Segundo porque el tipo de productos en los que se concentra GreenPrice no son de primera necesidad — son alimentos que normalmente se consideran de lujo y algunos otros productos como cosméticos. Tercero, porque a los jóvenes parece no importarles demasiado el elevado precio de los productos.
  • In any case, systematizing the aims (visualized project plans), working methodologies and results of the initiatives has proven to be a fine strategy that not only serves to improve the formers’ advocacy capacity, but also to facilitate that their models can be scaled and spread by other public or private agencies or communities.
  • Moreover, a model of integrated service delivery seems to help them in attracting more funding that will actually benefit many or even all areas of their activity. Although donors generally target their funding to some specific area (health for instance), if they are shown that their investment can contribute to positive outcomes in other areas as well, such as education, community empowerment, environmental protection, etc., they might be more willing to support the program (value for money approach)
  • Integration, thus, not only can help in broadening the sources of financial support (and diminishing with that the reliance on a single one of them). It also can facilitate that financial, infrastructural, human, and other resources are more easily shared across different areas. This is of particular importance because some development areas have more difficulties than others in producing or attracting financial sources of support.
  • Results-oriented trust has served as a motivation for solidarity among otherwise divided community members: When initiatives comprehensively (and thus effectively) address people’s needs, the latter are given new reasons to transcend discriminatory barriers and find themselves as partners of a joint project. Moreover, development initiatives that have operated for already long periods of time in a certain area use to take advantage of these results-based credibility and trust they have acquired within the communities after years of demonstrating effective outcomes as a resource to back up the setting of new initiatives in solidarity with them. Some donors or authorities, on their side, tend to get interested in cooperating with these initiatives because of the possibility they see to capitalize on their target communities’ trust on the initiative to work in the region.
  • Defining and sending clear messages of the concrete means through which people can contribute and participate
  • Facilitating the means for donors’ contributions (online resources; informational hotlines; concrete donation alternatives such as school materials, equipment; children/communities’ sponsorships by individuals, enterprises or even workers’ organizations; etc.)
  • Establishing parity funds schemes that capitalize on the local contributions and address funders’ concerns about how the frequent lack of ownership of the programs by the beneficiaries tends to result in their investments being non-sustainable
    • Systematizing the components, working methodologies and results of the initiatives’ models, showing supporters the effects of their contributions and demonstrating the initiative’s differentiated capacity to make them cost-effective (which would also help in gaining  visibility and thus, further support for the initiative for the settling of new projects).
  • The Capital Fund Scheme:
[This/the initiative] uses a comprehensive scheme that includes several funding mechanisms that allow the organization to create a capital fund that yields interests to be used to finance the project.

The establishment of a capital fund is an option that intends to avoid searching for annual funds but, instead, creates an investment fund that yields interests to be used to finance the project without touching the fund itself. If the fund is enough, there is no need to get more money. If not, or if the interests decrease, it will be necessary to keep up the search for donations. It can represent the whole or only a part of the budget needed for the project, but having a part makes it easy to get the rest because it gives certainty to the donors. This scheme can be discussed with the donors in the teaming contract.

  • The Parity/Matching Funds Scheme:

Funding comes from a variety of sources in exchange for an active commitment by the communities who own the forests, to take the necessary actions to ensure that the forests are always kept strictly intact – which means not exploiting them and not allowing anyone else to do so. The funds are used to compensate the communities for revenue lost, resulting from their abstention to economically exploit their forests.

Some of these funding mechanisms are obtained through parity or matching fund schemes where, in exchange for the communities’ contribution consisting on their commitment to keep the forests intact, entities such as the National Forestry Commission (Mexico) provides 1 Mexican peso for each peso that[This/the initiative] obtains from other financial sources to help the community to achieve the same objective – which is basically to preserve the environmental services that forests provide. Other mechanisms consist of financial contributions on the condition that the said commitment is verifiably met, and that the community engages in undertaking active forest conservation activities.

Like the National Forestry Commission in Mexico, many institutions are concerned about the lack of direct involvement (ownership) that most development projects have on the part of the beneficiaries. Frequently, beneficiaries’ involvement and ownership of the project demonstrates that the donors’ investment has greater possibilities of surviving and leaving a lasting effect.

  • There are numerous ways in which the program’s local community is already contributing in non-monetary ways to the sustainability of the Night Schools. The degree to which the local community has appropriated the program (as evidenced in their participation in providing management, supervision, infrastructure, funding for activities and materials, etc.) is a crucial point to note, for at least two reasons:

-It means that almost the only expenses that are not being covered by the community are the teachers’ salaries and some costs for activities that they cannot bear.

-It means that this initiative already bears the hallmarks of sustainability, given that it is well-known that development interventions are generally successful to the extent that they are appropriated by and integrated into the communities where they are targeted (development interventions are generally seen to fail when project funding ceases or when external project advisers are withdrawn, probably because community ‘take-up’ or ‘buy-in’ has been limited, making the project unsustainable without such community investment and ownership).

  • R1: Make a Community Contributions Inventory enumerating and detailing all contributions provided by families, communities, children, mentioning their monetary value in US dollars (e.g. If the place offered by the community for the school were to be rented instead of simply facilitated, how much should they be receiving for that rent; if the children were charging for their supervisory role how much would they be receiving). Additionally, based on that Inventory, find out the percentages of those contributions to be able to show the donors what percentage of each kind of participation is done by whom.
  • R2: Find a Donor that works with the Matching Funds Scheme, or establish it with one of the current donors using the Community Contributions Inventory (referred in R1) to promote an understanding in which for every X amount of dollars that the[This/the initiative] contributes, the Foundation commits to contribute, in return, with 2x or 3x (depending on the established parity). This scheme will give the Foundation the security that if[This/the initiative] stops contributing with x, the Foundation will stop as well. If the[This/the initiative] manages to get a matching fund with a 1 for 1 parity it would be already doubling its budget.
  • The establishment of a Trust Fund will strengthen the effort of giving certainty to both, the organization and the donors, by increasing the transparency in the money’s management. It will not affect the autonomy of the Village Education Committees because, as members of the Trust Fund, they will be able to ensure their requirements in the agreement between all members of the Trust Fund.
  • Because of the[This/the initiative] ’s high level of contribution to its own project, it could suggest to be Beneficiary and Donor at the same time, offering its Community Contributions Inventory (referred before in R1) as a contribution.
  • The prototype alternative market model promoted by[This/the initiative] and that inspired the[This/the initiative] , comprises, according to Luis Lopezllera’s “Money is not enough, what to do?” Manual (2008), the integration of an alternative economic system that includes at least the following:

1. The granting of memberships for partners.

2. The signing of a letter of commitment agreed on the rules of the exchange.

3. The creation of a user directory based on the planning of a consumer basket (that defines what kind of partners are needed, including foreign partners, if the locals cannot fulfil the need).

4. The training in person and/or through a brief Operation Manual.

5. The provision of the barter/exchange vouchers to the partners.

6. The creation of a regular newsletter that accompanies and strengthens the project.

7. The creation and distribution of educational and publicizing materials.

8. The establishment of a promotional team (volunteers).

9. The organization of regular meetings for the project’s development.

10. The organization of decisional deliberative assemblies of associated partners (decentralization).

11. The establishment of cellular stores for the public (that link together, give certainty, and facilitate the buying of products for those who cannot attend the market’s meetings because of logistical problems).

12. The organization of local fairs, private or public, gatherings, visits, courses, and workshops (introductory lectures and retreats).

13. The organization of regional or national meetings (with similar networks).

14. The use of advanced communication and dissemination means.

15. The procurement of infrastructure and support resources (property for the shop and office, meeting room, exhibition room, furniture, telephone, computer, projector, transportation, support fund, etc.).

At the end of these assemblies, demonstrative barter markets are mounted for people to learn to use the Tumin.

  • Over the years the organization has worked with 16 pilot partner communities and the surrounding areas, constructing a methodology for sustainable development that is in the process of systematization and that has gradually replicated in the Amazonian region and aims for a greater scaling. Their reference model, although it relies on external funding, is allegedly cheap and offers quick results (x).
  • As mentioned in the[This/the initiative] ’s section, donors’ support can increase if the recipient is able to convince them that whatever donation they make is going to be sustainable, which relates to beneficiaries’ ownership and participation in the projects but also to the organization’s capacity of finding means to sustain its programs, regardless of external support. Demonstrating to a donor a high capacity of fundraising certainly ensures their investment to be backed up by other’s trust on the Organization.
  • Placing emphasis on the need for connecting donors with their recipients emotionally, by:

a. Exposing clearly not only what[This/the initiative] ’s programs do and how they do it but their results (with statistics – quantitative – and sponsorship testimonials – qualitative).

b. Making a one-to-one connection between sponsors and sponsored children ([This/the initiative] ’s philosophy is: “connect one person who wants to help, with one child who needs it”). Phrases such as “sponsorship changes the lives of children-and their sponsors”; “an encouraging letter will mean so much to keep him or her enthusiastic about school”; “you will receive regular annual updates on his or her performance in school”; and, “your sponsorship serves as an ongoing reminder to your child that life can be different and better” (ibid.) are used.

  • connecting the donors with the beneficiaries by creating a portfolio for the donors
  • Cómo convences de que es buen proyecto? Demostrando que es viable, original (diferenciación), aportando buenos argumentos (advocacy capacity), demostrando historial de éxito (empresa exitosa porque siempre ha utilizado los apoyos como prometido  y ha tenido resultados: confianza basada en resultados), haciendo buena publicidad en el proceso, cultivando credibilidad.
  • Además de la constitución como donatarias autorizadas el gobierno ofrece otros medios para apoyar la financiación de OSC. Los fondos paritarios de INDESOL por ejemplo (el Fondo de Coinversión Social) tiene uno de los procesos más transparentes y cuenta con indicadores complejos con un proceso interesante en que se discute dictaminación en mesa redonda. Pero el apoyo máximo es de 300mil pesos y es tan tedioso el trámite que no vale la pena y filtra  a muchos. En todo caso te sirve para institucionalizarte y no volverlo a hacer.
  • Para facilitar la venta de los árboles fomentan dos tipos de colaboración que aseguran la integridad del proyecto y con ella su mayor proyección y atractivo sin la necesidad de invertir recursos extra:

Colaboración estrecha y de mutuo beneficio con otras Sociedades Anónimas (S.A.):

-Una ofrece paseos de integración, retiros y pláticas a la medida para empresas (Coca Cola, El Metro, Coppel, etc), lo que le sirve a [Esta/la iniciativa] para hacerse de recursos extra y publicidad.

-Otra, Hacienda X (desde 1999), ofrece alojamiento (hotel y campamentos); visitas culturales al Museo de Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz y al Museo de los Volcanes, al laberinto inglés, al parque de los venados, las águilas y las serpientes acariciables; instalaciones de deportes extremos como la tirolesa. Todos estos servicios y más están disponibles gratuitamente a los clientes de [Esta/la iniciativa]. Además, la Hacienda le envía sus clientes a éste último en visitas diarias a cambio de lo cual éste les regala pequeños árboles, les ofrece pláticas sobre manejo sustentable de los bosques y paseos por el vivero y el bosque.

-Otra más organiza visitas escolares que son reconocidas por la Secretaría de Educación Pública, pues están diseñadas de manera tal que sirvan para reforzar la enseñanza de materias del plan de estudios como ciencias, educación ambiental (manejo de basura, aprovechamiento del agua de lluvia, etc), civismo, etc. Estas visitas (van como 20 escuelas al día) tienen un costo de$140 pesos por alumno y representan un ingreso extra para [Esta/la iniciativa], quien a cambio obsequia cupones de descuento en árboles de navidad para cada alumno, un árbol pequeño del vivero y un certificado de participación. Aunque esta colaboración le es redituable a [Esta/la iniciativa] en términos financieros y de publicidad, un reto que tiene que vencer para asegurar un mayor impacto de su objetivo de sensibilización ambiental es la significativa apatía que parece caracterizar a buena parte de los alumnos y maestros que les visitan (una tercera parte según nuestra fuente).