"♣": Estrategias específicas empleadas por los estudios de caso para incrementar su nivel de auto-sustentabilidad.Pueden estar en inglés o español. Por favor usa el traductor del menú lateral "♣": Specific strategies used by the case studies to increase their degree of self-sustainability.They might be in English or in Spanish. Please use the side menu translator
- En 1997 varias comunidades formaron la Red de Ecoturismo Comunitario de los Tuxtlas S.C. (RECT), como estrategia para volverse candidatas a fondos gubernamentales que les permitieran impulsar un proyecto conjunto de ecoturismo en la región. Esta iniciativa les ha permitido hacer un nuevo uso de los recursos naturales y culturales locales, sin vulnerar su aprovechamiento sustentable y ajustándose a las crecientes restricciones gubernamentales.
Lago El Apompal es una iniciativa de ecoturismo campesino comunitario, un modelo alternativo de desarrollo al que varias comunidades de la región selvática de Los Tuxtlas le han apostado para resolver sus necesidades económicas sin vulnerar la sustentabilidad de los recursos naturales locales.
- promover la agenda global para el desarrollo sustentable:
Para escalar su modelo de desarrollo rural sustentable, la granja ha estado proporcionando consultorías técnicas y capacitación en agricultura natural a otras cooperativas rurales, a través de un modelo de trabajo que incluye: 1. El establecimiento de una red de canales de venta basados en comunidades locales; 2. El uso y promoción de tecnologías agrícolas naturales; 3. El desarrollo y fortalecimiento de cooperativas locales con servicios integrales; 4. El desarrollo de certificaciones locales para la producción orgánica que empoderen a los pequeños agricultores mediante la creación de un proceso de verificación en el que ellos, junto con los consumidores y otras partes interesadas están directamente involucrados — llamado Sistema de Garantía Participativo; 5. El desarrollo de estaciones de investigación, transferencia de conocimiento y desarrollo de habilidades (servicios técnicos, financieros, de mercadeo y sociales para los pequeños agricultores y sus comunidades).
En 2006, un grupo de estos migrantes se organizó y fundó [Esta/La iniciativa]. Esta organización no gubernamental creó un servicio de línea telefónica gratuita (hotline) a la que migrantes de las ciudades de Beijing, Wuhan y Suzhou pueden llamar para pedir apoyo en situaciones urgentes e inmediatas— ej. ayuda para conseguir empleo, para resolver controversias legales con sus contratistas, para defender sus derechos sociales y políticos, para resolver problemas de salud, etc. [Esta/La iniciativa] ofrece esta asesoría gracias a la colaboración de un staff de alrededor de 10 personas y de más de 300 voluntarios, todos ellos ex-migrantes.
- The families of the program’s children contribute to the program with cash or with donations of teaching aids or learning materials. Parents pay 10% of the cost of the health check-ups provided to the children. These contributions from the families are made in spite of the fact that families need their children’s contribution to the household income, and cannot easily afford to wait ten years for their children to start earning.
At a community level, the families’ contribution is even larger. The communities generally provide the buildings for the Night Schools and other activities (such as the Children’s Parliament, fairs, workshops, and meetings), and contribute voluntarily with cash, food, time, or work to the realization of the program. The supervision and management of the program is largely done by Village Education Committees and the Children’s Parliament, both volunteer organizations run by the community. Ultimately, almost the only expenses that are not covered by the community are the teachers’ salaries and some costs for activities that they cannot bear.
The extent of this community involvement is also evident in the number of people associated with an extensively decentralized social structure that is integrated with the[This/the initiative]’s initiatives in this domain: 150 full-time staff, 500 half-time staff, and around 5000 honorary members. This is both important and unusual, given that policy makers and policies are usually very far from implementation sites and beneficiaries.
The degree of ownership that the communities have of the program means that it already bears the hallmarks of sustainability, given that development interventions are generally successful to the extent that they are appropriated by and integrated into the communities where they are targeted. Such interventions are at greater risk of failure when project funding ceases or when external project advisers are withdrawn, probably because community ‘take-up’ or ‘buy-in’ has been limited, rendering the project unsustainable without such community investment and appropriation.
- An important feature of the program is that it is monitored by a Children’s Parliament. The children who are members of this forum, elected every two years by students attending the Night Schools, choose a Prime Minister who works with a student cabinet monitoring the work of the teachers, the functionality of the solar lanterns, the availability of safe drinking water, and the provision of teaching and learning materials. They also encourage children who have dropped out to attend school. The Prime Minister organizes monthly meetings in which the ministers raise any problems in the schools, ask adults for explanations, and prompt solutions. The cabinet is empowered to hire and fire teachers, and to expose cases of corruption. Some Night Schools’ teachers occasionally do not turn up for class, but children in the parliament help to create awareness of the potential problem so that it doesn’t happen very often. The forum clearly also serves to create awareness in the communities about the children’s points of view and needs. The general view is that although some problems might take some time to be solved, the system works. Moreover, “the concept of the Children’s Parliament is integral to the curriculum at the Night Schools. Children attending the Night Schools get to know more about political systems and structures by actually going through the learning process” (x).
- The supervision and management of the program is largely done by Village Education Committees and the Children’s Parliament, both volunteer organizations run by the community
- Finding enterprises whose employees match the donations collected for community sponsorship. Differently from the matching/parity schemes used by[This/the initiative] and[This/the initiative],[This/the initiative] usually uses this scheme with enterprises that work permanently with one particular region/population (e.g. a coffee enterprise that buys most of its coffee from one region). The scheme[This/the initiative] uses is to link the enterprises employees with the communities they work with is implementing a dynamic where each employee donates a certain percentage of his salary to the NGO’s initiative/program in the community, and the enterprise doubles that amount. This strengthens the wellbeing both of the community and the company’s employees. The employees are invited to inquire in their enterprises’ Human Research Department if their company already has a “matching gift program” and join it. The sponsorships are intended to a specific target: ensure the community’s self-sustainability in an agreed period of time. The money to find the partner enterprise comes from the[This/the initiative]’s main branch, and it is recovered from the money the enterprise provides in the sponsorship budget. This budget is allocated into capacity building programs for the community.[This/the initiative] is a Civil Association and each of its local offices are Civil Associations as well, and not a part of[This/the initiative]’s main office. So the budget goes to increasing the community Civil Association’s self-sustainability (training them on getting funds, managing programs, establishing cooperatives, increasing social participation, etc.). The Enterprise and[This/the initiative] make an agreement where the local Civil Association (the community organized) ensures results over a certain period of time (10, 20 years), and if there are not results (periodical evaluations) the funding is stopped. In short: the partnership contemplates an Exit Plan of both the enterprise and[This/the initiative]’s main branch with the intention of ensuring a decentralized development program.
- Creating local cooperatives:[This/the initiative] promotes that an enterprise invests in opening a local cooperative where an agreement is made with the participants that they will take care of their families and communities (e.g. bring their children to school), provided that a job is being offered to them and that there is already a buyer for their products (with fair prices). The cooperative’s surpluses are used to reinvest in the cooperative, cover the organization’s operation costs, pay the salaries of the cooperative’s employees, and invest in the community – e.g. on one of the NGO’s initiatives in that same community. With such a model, enterprises benefit with the tax deductions (Corporate Social Responsibility), and this ensure suppliers. The community, on the other hand, benefits by settling cooperatives that could stimulate local production, promoting employment to the families and reducing migration rates to the cities (as happens with the[This/the initiative] and the[This/the initiative] Project). It also benefits from the agreement made with the participants on taking care of their families and communities, and form the investment that is done of the surpluses into initiatives that help improve its overall living conditions.
- all stakeholders participate in educational decisions, which motivates their ownership of the projects. The model has, for example, a children’s and a parents’ government that run the school.
- General Assembly takes place every two months among the partners. Attendance is not mandatory and the participation of representatives of the partners is accepted in cases where they cannot attend. At the end of these assemblies, demonstrative barter markets are mounted for people to learn to use the Tumin. Partners can prepare their participation in the Assembly through subgroup meetings as required. The Assembly, which has (as one of its objectives) the constant evaluation of the project, is made up of Commissions that are in charge of organizing various issues related to the[This/the initiative] Project. Thus, there are Commissions on Education (to teach children new economic values such as solidarity), Communication (broadcasting the project), Distribution (which dispenses the Tumin), etc.
- Contemplates the training of local stakeholders to follow-up, and supervises its implementation in creating “microcenters” where they meet once a month to disseminate innovations and resolve problems together. For this purpose they are currently preparing a virtual platform as a complementary instrument.
- The Children’s Parliament is itself a model for the exchange of ideas. This could be the basis for the exchange of other valuables (knowledge, things… it would be necessary to define what, from a participatory assessment of what is in the region in terms of credits of trust, alienation. Namely: to go from parliamentarianism to economy with something that replaces money – or complements it – being careful not to replicate the criticized existing schemes).
- the program has decentralized the decision-making process (it has created Village Education Committees and a Children’s Parliament!), giving schools the ability to keep relevant and effective for the communities — by taking advantage of their inputs
- Gobernado hoy por un patronato
- The model’s success in raising schools’ quality relates to its comprehensive focus on academic improvement, equity in education opportunities, and the community’s involvement (the model counts, for example, with a Children’s and a Parents’ government that run the school).
- [This/the initiative] works in partnerships with the communities, creating or strengthening local organizations that are independent from[This/the initiative] itself, thus limiting its financial and administrative responsibility and ensuring their autonomy (x).
- a model in which there is vast participation of learners, parents and other community members, teachers, and administrators in the school management, supervision and control, decision-making, planning and the implementation of education programs, and the development of curricula, and learning and teaching materials.[This/the initiative] is certainly a practical demonstration of such concepts, since it highlights the importance of co-management, relevant education, and strong context integration in order to ensure equal access to quality education.