♣ Prestación de servicios integrados

"♣": Estrategias específicas empleadas por los estudios de caso para incrementar su nivel de auto-sustentabilidad.Pueden estar en inglés o español. Por favor usa el traductor del menú lateral 

"♣": Specific strategies used by the case studies to increase their degree of self-sustainability.They might be in English or in Spanish. Please use the side menu translator
  • Desde su creación, la RECT ha ido forjando un esquema de desarrollo centrado en el ecoturismo campesino comunitarioOrganizadas en sociedades cooperativas formadas por varias familias, las comunidades participantes han hecho diagnósticos para definir cuáles de los recursos locales son aprovechables, han llevado a cabo evaluaciones de impacto ambiental para conocer cuántos visitantes pueden recibir sin afectar el medio, han capacitado a los pobladores participantes, y han distribuido responsabilidades de manera que todos los aspectos de la industria eco-turística estén cubiertos.
  • Como empresa social que funge como plataforma integral de desarrollo agrícola, la granja se mantiene con los ingresos percibidos con la renta de terrenos y animales y con los paseos escolares, mencionados arriba. Además, ha puesto en marcha un comedor que opera durante los fines de semana y una tienda en la que vende productos tanto propios (huevos, carne, verduras), como de otros colectivos con enfoques de trabajo afines (con comisión), lo que hace la visita a la granja más atractiva. La granja ofrece además consultorías y capacitaciones a funcionarios y organizaciones que quieren replicar el modelo, así como a empresas que quieren adoptar tecnologías más ecológicas. También ofrece talleres de carpintería y artes locales. Funciona con el apoyo de voluntarios — algunos tesistas, otros jóvenes que quieren experimentar un modo de vida diferente al que les ofrece la ciudad — y se apoya aún significativamente de donaciones provenientes tanto de fundaciones como de gobiernos locales, las cuales le ayudan, en parte, a financiar becas para pasantes que ayudan al manejo de la granja. Esta diversidad de fuentes de ingreso le permite la subsistencia de su proyecto en esa región donde la renta de las tierras es muy cara.

  • El proyecto de la granja es sustentable también porque beneficia a varios actores. Investigadores, estudiantes, organizaciones, campesinos, empresarios y funcionarios aprenden de su experiencia o le aprovechan para experimentar alternativas. Los ciudadanos participantes (generalmente de clase media) tienen acceso a productos orgánicos a precios competitivos, a un lugar de descanso y cercanía con la naturaleza que pueden compartir con sus hijos y a una dinámica de comunidad en la que comparten sus productos, aprenden recetas, etc. Las comunidades locales se benefician por el pago de la renta de los terrenos — cuyos derechos conservan —, por las contrataciones de trabajadores en la granja, por los productos que a ésta le venden, por las capacitaciones que les ofrece para empaquetar y vender los productos sobrantes de sus economías de subsistencia (frutas de temporada por ejemplo) y para recuperar y mejorar sus técnicas de cultivo (la mayoría de los saberes tradicionales se han perdido con el proceso de urbanización).

  • Moreover, a model of integrated service delivery seems to help them in attracting more funding that will actually benefit many or even all areas of their activity. Although donors generally target their funding to some specific area (health for instance), if they are shown that their investment can contribute to positive outcomes in other areas as well, such as education, community empowerment, environmental protection, etc., they might be more willing to support the program (value for money approach)
  • Undertaking systemic interventions that address the different stakeholders’ needs and interests that either globally or locally concern the initiative
  • Working through trans-sectoral partnerships with other initiatives operating in target communities with diverse development agendas (both public and private), in the understanding that these collaborations are designed by and subject to the control of the local people. Capitalizing and building on already existing efforts and/or establishing win-win alliances saves resources and energy, and boosts the potential of each of the initiatives involved. Moreover, taking advantage of their inputs (services, methodologies, resources, etc.) can help in  filling the gaps that the initiative itself cannot cover, expanding the communities’ access to a wide variety of social programs that, supporting one another, become more relevant to more of them
  • By having education as an important component of broader development models, initiatives can further promote developmental sustainability in the sense of: enhancing educational participation across generations (we know that educated mothers tend to seek ways of educating their children) and, building local capacity to support other development programs.

the program integrates the schools within a network of other development programs operated by the organization, that address the diverse necessities of the children and their families, enhancing their capacity to attend school — health services, drinking water, etc.

  • Integrating the schools within a network of development programs

Besides receiving education, the program’s students benefit from health services, communication resources, toys, and learning materials provided by other development programs operated by the organization. This includes solar-powered lamps that allow the operation of the schools at night in areas in which there is frequently no electricity grid. Another aspect of the integrated development program sees to the building of rainwater harvesting tanks adjacent to each Night School, which helps to ensure that families in semi-desert areas will still be provided with water by their children, even if they attend school during the hours they would otherwise spend collecting it from wells. The fact that the Night Schools are embedded in a mutually supportive network of initiatives grounded in the [This/the initiative] facilitates attention to the children’s and their families’ diverse and specific needs.

This comprehensive model also allows for the sharing of funds among different projects to support one another, and for the shared provision of materials, personnel, training, and infrastructure across the different projects. Some examples of the benefits of this integration are the Field Research Centres’ and Associate Partner Organizations’ roles as meeting points for a Children’s Parliament (a key project in this comprehensive model, which will be shortly introduced), and the fact that many Night Schools’ alumni are incorporated into the[This/the initiative]’s development projects. Alumni work as, for example, solar engineers, coordinators of craft workshops or of the local early childhood education centres, cooks for the[This/the initiative] community, or as cultural workers in the community. Others extend the benefits of the program into the mainstream education system at the Siksha Karmi and Siksha Niketa schools. Further examples of this integration among projects lie in the training offered to teachers by the[This/the initiative]’s Health Centre to identify common health issues in their students, and in the vocational training that the children receive.

Teachers are prepared in a ten-day training program run annually during the off-season, and they meet monthly to discuss teaching methods and problems, and to improve their teaching skills. Teachers are also taught to repair the solar lamps and, as mentioned earlier, to identify common health issues in their students.

The mission of the[This/the initiative]’s Communications team is worth noting here. Through puppetry, a traditional means in this cultural context of sharing messages with the community, the[This/the initiative] discusses in an interactive manner some of the problems faced by the Night Schools, such as the need for girls’ attendance, the safety of the children, their relationship with their teachers, and so on. In a related vein, the Night Schools hold the annual Balmela Festival to provide feedback to their communities, to reinforce the value of education, and to thank them for their help and participation.

  • strong context integration in order to ensure equal access to quality education
  • In contrast to the frequently punitive measures employed by local authorities to ensure school attendance (for example, making an educational qualification a prerequisite for a driving license), the[This/the initiative], mindful of the causes that prevent families from accessing education, looks for the children in most need and adapts its program to their local socio-economic and cultural context. This is not only a key aspect of the program’s success in attracting these children into school, but a primary source of its self-sustainability and of the quality and relevance of the education they provide.
  • The extent to which the[This/the initiative]’s programs are integrated into the local communities provides another source of their self-sustainability and, more particularly, of the sustainability of the educational initiatives. The modality of integrated service delivery –  from health care through education to the provision of potable water and solar lighting – enables both the mutual strengthening of the various components of the project network and the deep entrenching of these initiatives within the local communities
  • Regarding the Participation in the Carbon Bond Market Scheme:

One of[This/the initiative]’s main strengths and most well-known contributions in the development field is the Solar Energy Program, which is already greatly intertwined with its other initiatives – including the Night Schools – that are largely possible due the provision of the solar lanterns that allow them to run at night. Moreover, many Night School alumni participate in the Solar Energy Program once they have graduated.

This means that, so far, the Night Schools are already part of the Solar Energy Program, which generates renewable energy and therefore is eligible to participate in schemes such as the carbon bond market.

Recommendation made in the[This/the initiative] Study:

R5: To design a strategy to integrate more solidly and consciously the Solar Night Schools Program to the[This/the initiative]’s UNESCO Learning Centres for Sustainable Community Development (Mason & Maclean, 2011), and find an intermediary (such as Terra Global Capital) that introduces it to the international carbon bond market and deals with all the procedures involved in this funding source.

Money collected by this means can also be included into the Capital Fund (see R3) and ensured through a Trust Fund (see R4) as[This/the initiative] does to strengthen the financial sustainability of its project.

  • [This/the initiative] model for Integrative Development
[This/the initiative] initiatives are divided into Territorial Development, Health, Education, Culture, and Communication, and they are all structured through a permanent process of Institutional Integration.

As mentioned earlier,[This/the initiative] started as a health delivery program, providing adapted technologies such as micro-systems for the provision and treatment of water, house filters, wells, and rustic pits.

In the year 2006, the organization acquired a boat (the Abare Ship) that, making regular rounds from community to community, approached people with an interdisciplinary team presented as Mocorongo Great Circus teaching people means to take care of their hygiene and prevent diseases with fun and participatory games. Personnel from the boat also offered basic medical and dental attention, vaccinations, family planning trainings, minor surgeries, etc.

The success of the project resulted in its absorption by the Brazilian Ministry of Health and in its escalation to State level in 2010.

  • integrating the work of different areas, consolidating the model’s impact
  • Work with partnerships both with the communities and with institutions abroad, from the public and the private sector, and with diverse development agendas. This enables the organization to expand these communities’ access not only to primary health but also to a wide variety of social programs that support one another with the transference, adaptation, and application of appropriate social technologies and also in terms of funding (x). It also benefits the foreign partners because they make good use of  [This/the initiative]’s experience, know-how, and credibility in the region to access it.
  • [This/the initiative] works in partnerships with the communities, creating or strengthening local organizations that are independent from[This/the initiative] itself, thus limiting its financial and administrative responsibility and ensuring their autonomy (x).
[This/the initiative]’s development model is integrated because of the interconnections that exist amongst its various interventions, which are emphasized in the understanding that attending the communities’ needs in an integral way implies recognizing that community life is integral itself; that all age sectors have to be attended; and, that one area can support another because it is frequently the same people that are involved.[This/the initiative]’s institutional integration process consists of consolidating each area’s relevant institutions and trying to establish a transversal project.

However, to achieve this level of integration is very difficult, as many factors work against it: The responsibilities of[This/the initiative]’s staff are distributed by areas and each area’s responsible has to be accountable for the programs at his/her charge, to ensure maintaining donors support. While all personnel are encouraged to be involved in all areas of work, they can only do it superficially because they have to concentrate on their own projects. Most importantly, the donors support very concrete/thematic agendas. Their funding criteria are not integral and they expect concrete results in concrete areas. So each area coordinator is generally responsible for the results of its domain and not the other.

Ensures all its personnel are at least aware of the purpose and situation of[This/the initiative]’s other initiatives.

Distributes the funding collected across initiatives.

Articulates different initiatives (e.g. people from the craft program receive tourists from the eco-tourism program and incentivize the territorial management organization; the renewable energy program provides energy to the Telecenters; the education program supports health prevention participative activities and environmental endeavours, etc.)

  • Explore partnership options for the Night Schools either as independent projects or for their social events (the Children’s Parliament for example), to diversify sources of income and the offer of services for the Night Schools.
  • [This/the initiative] strategies are quite comprehensive and integrative in reach because all funds collected are used to support both the sponsored child (and the different dimensions of its needs such as nutrition, medical attention, clean water, educational books, materials, teachers, etc.) and the whole community (clean water for drinking and health care). This means that all funds are combined and used to benefit all children and their community, and not only the sponsored children.
  • [This/the initiative] has 75 years of experience working with marginalized children and their communities in 31 countries (approx. 17.8 million children and their families participated by 2012) subsidizing the scarce local resources to “empower a cycle of improvement that touches every member of society” and “create the environments children need to thrive” (x). They also work with local groups and parent committees to identify key local problems and possible solutions, all of them family oriented, such as:

a. Trainings/awareness programs about child protection (e.g. for parents).

b. Early childhood psychosocial, health, and education support.

c. Youth unemployment skills training.

d. Health care and sanitation (nutrition: establishing renewable resources of food and safe water).

e. Basic education (building schools, vocational skills)

f. Micro-enterprises/jobs for generating family income.

g. Emergencies programs for children that are victims of wars and natural disasters.

  • Para facilitar la venta de los árboles fomentan dos tipos de colaboración que aseguran la integridad del proyecto y con ella su mayor proyección y atractivo sin la necesidad de invertir recursos extra:

Colaboración estrecha y de mutuo beneficio con otras Sociedades Anónimas (S.A.):

-Una ofrece paseos de integración, retiros y pláticas a la medida para empresas (Coca Cola, El Metro, Coppel, etc), lo que le sirve a [Esta/la iniciativa] para hacerse de recursos extra y publicidad.

-Otra, Hacienda X (desde 1999), ofrece alojamiento (hotel y campamentos); visitas culturales al Museo de Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz y al Museo de los Volcanes, al laberinto inglés, al parque de los venados, las águilas y las serpientes acariciables; instalaciones de deportes extremos como la tirolesa. Todos estos servicios y más están disponibles gratuitamente a los clientes de [Esta/la iniciativa]. Además, la Hacienda le envía sus clientes a éste último en visitas diarias a cambio de lo cual éste les regala pequeños árboles, les ofrece pláticas sobre manejo sustentable de los bosques y paseos por el vivero y el bosque.

-Otra más organiza visitas escolares que son reconocidas por la Secretaría de Educación Pública, pues están diseñadas de manera tal que sirvan para reforzar la enseñanza de materias del plan de estudios como ciencias, educación ambiental (manejo de basura, aprovechamiento del agua de lluvia, etc), civismo, etc. Estas visitas (van como 20 escuelas al día) tienen un costo de$140 pesos por alumno y representan un ingreso extra para [Esta/la iniciativa], quien a cambio obsequia cupones de descuento en árboles de navidad para cada alumno, un árbol pequeño del vivero y un certificado de participación. Aunque esta colaboración le es redituable a [Esta/la iniciativa] en términos financieros y de publicidad, un reto que tiene que vencer para asegurar un mayor impacto de su objetivo de sensibilización ambiental es la significativa apatía que parece caracterizar a buena parte de los alumnos y maestros que les visitan (una tercera parte según nuestra fuente).

Colaboraciones de mutuo beneficio con la población local:

-[Esta/la iniciativa] provee las instalaciones para un Bazar Navideño que da oportunidad a comerciantes durante la temporada alta de vender sus productos — a quienes selecciona en función de garantizar la diversidad en la oferta de productos y con ello, el mayor atractivo del bazar. Aunque la renta que [Esta/la iniciativa] recibe de éstos sólo le alcanza para mantener el lugar y no le representa ninguna ganancia monetaria, le sirve para hacer su lugar de venta de árboles más atractivo a gente que viene de otras partes del país.

-Lo mismo sucede con el Mercado de comida navideño, en cuyo casi ni siquiera se le cobra renta a los vendedores, pues la mayoría son locales.

-[Esta/la iniciativa] da permiso a pepenadores locales de recoger y aprovechar la basura, lo que le ayuda a su vez a mantener sus instalaciones limpias.

-También da permiso a los pastores locales de traer sus borregos a pastar, lo que a [Esta/la iniciativa] le sirve para que éstos corten el pasto y le abonen.

  • Actualmente, los proyectos que se adoptan en [Esta/la iniciativa] son elegidos por los dueños. Tienen pensado, a futuro, formar un comité de las cabezas de proyecto para considerar sus opiniones. Se eligen proyectos (a) que construyan “bienestar integral en armonía con el medio ambiente, arte y cultura y tecnología”, (b) que sean complementarios y se refuercen entre sí, y (c) que sean autosustentables en términos financieros. Los dueños consideran que la competencia es sana y no prometen exclusividad a ningún proyecto (visión que contrasta con la de modelos, como los de las economías alternativas, que argumentan que la diversidad y complementariedad, más que la competencia, son fuentes de sustentabilidad.) Los proyectos tienen un tiempo de gracia para establecerse y luego tienen que comenzar a dar resultados o renegociar los términos.

Los proyectos que ha adoptado[Esta/la iniciativa] hasta el momento pueden dividirse en:

Producción alimentaria sustentable: Agricultura urbana, apicultura, avicultura, lombricultura y composta, producción de tortillas artesanales, cafetería/restaurante

Integración ambiental: Mariposario, bioconstrucción, captadores de agua pluvial

Salud y deporte: Calistenia, artes marciales, bicicleta de montaña, yoga, dog park, temazcal tradicional

Tecnología: Talleres de drones y automatización de huertos urbanos.

En segundo lugar, se ofrece a los clientes una diversidad de actividades de forma que se aumenten los rendimientos de su visita: además de hacer algún deporte, pueden tomar un taller de apicultura, visitar el mariposario, comer en el restaurante y llevar a su perro a entrenar

A individuos beneficiados:

Bienestar integral (deporte, arte, cultura, salud, alimentación)

aprendizaje

  • Further integrating its different development initiatives.
  • [This/the initiative]’s development model is integrated because of the interconnections that exist amongst its various interventions, which are emphasized in the understanding that attending the communities’ needs in an integral way implies recognizing that community life is integral itself; that all age sectors have to be attended; and, that one area can support another because it is frequently the same people that are involved.[This/the initiative]’s institutional integration process consists of consolidating each area’s relevant institutions and trying to establish a transversal project.

However, to achieve this level of integration is very difficult, as many factors work against it: The responsibilities of[This/the initiative]’s staff are distributed by areas and each area’s responsible has to be accountable for the programs at his/her charge, to ensure maintaining donors support. While all personnel are encouraged to be involved in all areas of work, they can only do it superficially because they have to concentrate on their own projects. Most importantly, the donors support very concrete/thematic agendas. Their funding criteria are not integral and they expect concrete results in concrete areas. So each area coordinator is generally responsible for the results of its domain and not the other.

To counteract these effects,[This/the initiative]:

-Ensures all its personnel are at least aware of the purpose and situation of[This/the initiative]’s other initiatives.

-Distributes the funding collected across initiatives.

-Searches for partnerships that not only expand the amount of services provided to the communities it serves but the support of one initiative to another.

-Uses participatory mapping as the departing point of all of its programs. This methodology not only enhances people’s ownership but also enables the description of people’s integral perspective about their community, its components, conflicts, resources, problems, needs, as well as the possible strategies to respond to all of them.

-The circus integrates the way people learn, conceptualize, and appropriate[This/the initiative]’s initiatives because it uses different languages (dancing, singing, talking) to interrelate knowledge.

-Articulates different initiatives (e.g. people from the craft program receive tourists from the eco-tourism program and incentivize the territorial management organization; the renewable energy program provides energy to the Telecenters; the education program supports health prevention participative activities and environmental endeavours, etc.).

-Uses PMES annual cycles (planning, monitoring, evaluation, and systematization) to ensure the organization’s initiatives are working transversally. So, for example, in January and February the organization devotes itself to define and publish its annual plan (which includes objectives, activities, indicators, expected outcomes, and funding administration and sources). In June and July, they do a mid-year evaluation and adapt the plan accordingly. And finally, in December they make an annual evaluation and plan the next cycle.

  • [This/the initiative]’s Strategies for Scalability

Not only the vision but also the strategies of the organization intend all to create replicable models of action whose objective is to serve as demonstrative references for the State (not the government) and/or the private sector, so they learn better and cheaper ways for designing and implementing public policies/projects and adopt them.

X argued that the organization’s mission is to create links between communities and partners from abroad rather than monopolizing the former; meaning that their objective is to create development models that can be further scaled by agents that are capable of implementing and funding them sustainably. Once this mission is achieved, the organization’s aim is to change its role from implementing the programs to creating management capacities in the communities, to oversee their continuous persistence and quality after adopted by either the State or the private sector.

[This/the initiative] is currently requesting an independent agency’s help to systematize[This/the initiative]’s intervention model to be able to scale it, providing that it considers itself as a low cost and high impact sustainable development alternative whose construction is based on the know-how gained from more than 20 years of working with marginalized populations in the Amazon.

In collaboration with[This/the initiative], Ashoka and McKinsey & Company (2010) made a noteworthy multi-annual strategic plan for scaling-up[This/the initiative]’s program (hereafter referred as the Strategic Plan) to envisage the perspectives and recommendations to expand[This/the initiative] and achieve, in 5 years, a “community integrated development participative model, with proper socio-environmental technologies, with low cost and high impact, consolidated in all direct attention areas and ready for replication in other regions” (x).

The Strategic Plan explores the characteristics of[This/the initiative]’s model and its principal strengths and weaknesses before making some suggestions to the organization – all of them very illustrative of the factors related to its level of self-sustainability.

It describes the organization’s value chain: the inputs it receives (e.g. financial resources, social demands, human resources, data, and information), the means through which the organization works to create value (e.g. participative processes, democracy, partnerships, strategic planning, trainings, exchanges, inter and multidisciplinary approaches, adaptation of international social technologies into the local context, and methodologies for the strengthening of community groups), and its outputs (e.g. learning and information, trust relationships, reference models for development initiatives, self-esteem, autonomy, social inclusion, influence in public policies, social work, trained professionals).

The Strategic Plan also evaluates[This/the initiative]’s strengths (e.g. proper and replicable social technologies, measured benefits, co-management capacity, team’s expertise, knowledge on the region, capacity to propose and adapt, network of partners, visibility and credibility obtained, both locally and abroad), its opportunities (e.g. work in a region with global visibility – the Amazon – network of contacts, scope for gaining scale because of the interest that public administrations have on[This/the initiative]’s work), its weakness (e.g. spread of energy and resources in too many actions, non-satisfactory working conditions, insufficiency in the system of management and systematization of experiences, little participation of the Associates’ Council), and its challenges (lack of stability in the funding sources, limitedness and lack of flexibility of the resources available for institutional strengthening, lack of appropriateness of national policies for the Amazonian region, Amazonian predatory occupation processes).

Correspondingly, some of the recommended strategies contained in the Strategic Plan for [This/the initiative]’s sustainability and scalability are:

  • The formation of a network of multipliers.
  • The expansion of communication tools.
  • The inter-institutional exchange of methodological processes of expansion.
  • The transfer, dissemination, and replication of environmental technologies.
  • The cooperation with the public and private sector.
  • The methodological reorientation to ensure a greater interaction with public policies and both public and private institutions, identifying common demands and possible cooperation initiatives, using information technologies for gaining scale.

To enlarge[This/the initiative]’s reach without compromising its quality, the Strategic Plan recommends dividing the 5 years into 3 stages. During the first one, the areas that are currently intervened are consolidated as a permanent laboratory, its results are more comprehensively systematized, and priority is given to the Institutional Integration (which includes developing its communication means, inter-institutional agreements, methodological exchanges and consultancies, adapted socio-environmental expansion, transference, dissemination, and replication processes).

During the second stage, the area of dissemination is gradually expanded, starting with[This/the initiative]’s more consolidated social technologies, especially 1) the health initiative – which includes preparatory actions for scalability (systematization of the Basic Attention Model that[This/the initiative] has implemented and is offering now to the new beneficiaries, consultancy services portfolio, prospective of potential regions and actors for the replication of the model, etc.). And, 2) its integrative development practices: also needs preparatory actions. Start with strategies of participative diagnosis and planning (conjuncture, identification of local actors and their perceptions, research about priorities for short, middle, and long terms, sectorial competences, etc.) culminating with a Development Plan with Recommendations for the application in the area of work.

Finally, stage 3 is suggested to be about articulating the Amazon with other regions around the globe, attracting proactive and strategic connections.

  • Define a program for institutional integration that:

a. Designs and systematizes a long-term a transversal project that increases the existing interconnections amongst[This/the initiative]’s development initiatives and the Night Schools.

b. Settles partnerships between internal and external agents for the concrete purpose of increasing the[This/the initiative] model’s integration with the Night Schools and the mutual support of its initiatives.

c. Departs from a diagnosis of[This/the initiative]’s current intervention model, and defines a short-term pilot project area to begin the integration process using, perhaps, participatory mapping as a methodology.

d. Uses PMES annual cycles (planning, monitoring, evaluation, and systematization) to ensure the organization’s initiatives are working transversally.

e. Uses the already existing information-communication technologies (ICTs) in the Night Schools to integrate them into the[This/the initiative]’s other initiatives.

  • A plan for institutional integration (which includes developing its communication means, inter-institutional agreements, methodological exchanges and consultancies, transference, dissemination, and replication processes).